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In case over 14 days, it is impossible to find delivered parcel, since it has been a long time passed. Why did not I receive the full shipment? If some of products you ordered are missing: 1 Some packages are shipped by multi-boxes. One box may be delivered first, and other one may be delivered later. Please check your shipping sheet to find whether it is shipped by multi-boxes.
If so, please check whether product is possible to leak out from the damage part. Take a picture on the damage part and send it to us with your order number and item's name. All products are sold by individual sellers. But you can shop products of over 2, brands and get them by once on our website. Puril tra'cl a;lso allo. As mentioned in Chapter 1, a further use of rpioililorretrics to marketing researc.
Pupi change. Ays stLutistically iq- nificant. He noted o. The interv iew and questic. Halpe-rn conducted studies shc,'hing that ptrpi 1 dilation was as "ncod" a resooner, inid Pull d l ti. A "questicorinir article b- E1laci-ell, f-: al sur.
They stated that there eist both "unfounded optimism" and "ill-timed slepti. Dissenting Votes V. Their discussion -of the "r. According to Uood- mansee fipupillary. The liqht refle. The near-'. The relation of the dilator muscle, cause-' ',' y de.
It is this third phenonrenon which Lownifel d lnd oodr. Another type of criticism was contributed by lIunnrllv, et al. They noted that punil si2e seems to be directly relateW to fear through autononmic contamination pas discussed in Chapter 1.
The authors conclude. Summa r The reccid presented awo: tends to obscure iA, patterns which ray hrve ererge. A summer, content analysi: of these articles reviewed in this chapter is pr. Perhaps the mijcr conclusion that car be jdrein at this stage is that the pupil does respond to stimuli. Pefore the question can be resolved, a much more precise rnethodolog,'v for measuring the liariables cf inrteire.
The rest of this study is an attenpr to contribute tO these goals. F irmel 19E Landauer Feal rs. Wlurrnn ll at Il. Although they were tested in the null form, the hypctheses listed here are in the form of expected results.
Chapter IV will describe the methodology of the e-perimEnt, and the collection and analysis of data. Research Goals 1. The validation and reolication of earlier worl's sho. The developnrnt of a linear model describing the para. Examination of an improved n. Collection anri anari is of daai for testing the fol low- i nj spec i i c I. Arn ie-ty-' ou irg stirrull w;il di late the oupil. Hi hlvy rpleasurr.
Autiiorro:ic Conrt. Heartr a e changes wnll t. St in poteri tit l changes ll t. Pescr'nse duration rupillry. Heartrat e will take longer to return to b. Skin rnotential ill take longer to retur to 'asp line in response to an. Each ut1bect sE. The desi,-,n '. Club and Ni elt Sirra i1. They i rp ie pre -te ted throw. Tho i repoerti no.
At the t e ii of the s tud, e. Aia lillt. LiL- In L. Lm 'r. LU II. Inra: l. The: sne to. C" Figure Each subject wa: fitted with electrodes for measur- ing hrartrate and sk in potential. H:c has cho,'n the measuring eouip- ment, and the basic scope of the stud,' was described. The subject was then seated in a dentist's chair, which allowed a certain degree of frFedom, ihile restricting beod, mo.
The subject looked into a rectangular viewing bo. The bc. The walls, top, nnd bottom of the bot were painted flat black to effectli. A black cloth covered the boe and the sutiect during each run of the study.
The end of the be. A chin rest, used to mninimize head nio. Ti'o lod,l. E tagraphic Model C50 H Carrosel slide piojectors, located 25 cm. The size c'f the projected injae was reduced to 4 by 6 cm. The projectors i'ere connected to a BR hbryid computer which controlled the timing and presen- tation of thf slides. Equipr, irnt DuI'iirIq th e. The he. Just to the left of the sub:j. The TVP u. The eui FIiieit operi'ted in the near inf ra--ed. With the exception of one subject, the light source produced no reported discomfort in this study.
Figure Pecordin Equiprment A Eec. Sensors on the subject were connected to the recorder, r hich disoleaed readings on a continuously nmovirin chart and simrultaneouily transmitted data to the c:,om'uter system described beloi. Tne recorder contained a timer unit and e.
Th- E. The Jdat c. Stimuli Stimuli for the studies reported in this dissertation ,ere a set of blacl and white 35 mr- slides. A series of 58 slides ;?
Of these 5E. In the slide selection pretest, 1. A cop cof the rating questionnaire is included in ADDendi. I of this oaoer.
The slides chosen for the study were those e'. The direns:ions of interest. The slides chosen are described in Table Scoring the nues. The set was mriade rup of 2 sutbsets of scales, or factors. The pleasart-unp pleasant fac-tor was corpos'ed of the f,: lloWin-g semantic differentials: Disiusted-elated Gloom- h-he erful Ho-tt ile-friendr l Unp l eas3snt-r Fleas.
Lurri nos it, cores of Slides s'tiriulus Criiitent i. Picture, rnarl in g [DC?. Picture, Defori ed Eat. Pi cture, Ferret aniiri. Picture, Diefor. Picture, Err aci. Picture [leforC ed [. Girl 9. Ficture, C hair 0. Charcoal Eletch, [;udP 1. Ebl rcl L. Linri-e bra wi r P-ct nrial Picture, Child n Pain 5. Cs Ll anl. Judoed Affect" Fear Fle3as ntness 2:. The r aci e '". Since each scale had a rarrng of from 1 to 7, the possible range of scores was If a person had chec.
Checking all scales at the "neutral" midpoint 'alue would have produced a score of The middle roint appears to be a true "neutral" position on the pleasant-urncleasarit dimension. Unlike the r easant-unpleasant fact',r, it appears that the an-iet, scale does not yield a tru'- neutral Fpo, iti on, if by neutral ire mean lack of anxiety.
Father, this scale appears to produce a step-score, ii th degree of an, i. A single ser. To ensure that the groupings of slides used as independent var'iabll were indeed different from each Lälly - Various - Maaseuturokkia (CD), the medians test i:as cc.
The groups in each dyad were si nificantl. All sl des and control slide cs used in the study had the sarm intensity, wi thin limits so that any pupill r:. Table alsc presented the range of scrarbjltea liht intensities for the set of stimuli.
St imr lus Presentation A hlani control slide waeJ projected or the screen while the suh- ject was being seated in the chair and adjusted to the equipment. As soon as all sensors were reading oroperli, a two-mirnute stud, -imilar to the main stud, iuas conducted tD fariliarize the subject wi. At the end of toe riinut-s. This time. The subject was then cautioned about movinr, his head t. HP uas: 1: asked. He was inforrrmid that, at sonre tine during the eperi- ment, he night lhe r a buzzer, and that it vas nart of the e.
Tle subject was then aslied to readjust his head into the chin rest, the camera focus nas checled, a black cloth was pl1ac:d c' er the subject and over the equipment, and the main e.
A bl nr. The bianl. Ieri- mient. Once gien that instruction, the comr. To accomplish this, the ronoutrer was prograrmmd to start chanqinm the slide to be projected one half sec- ond before it instructed the other slide projector to remove the s'lij currently bteinog projected. This "flip-filop" process was de. The crder of stimulus pre-sentatior w'as randomly '.
At the end of this time, the subjectt ,6as given a "startle" stimulus conisting of an alarm buzzer soundino. The brz:er was- attached to the wood bottom of the arm rest used bL the subject, arnd produced both a startling sound and a simultaneous. ThPsn startle stimuli always occurred at the end of the set of slides, and weir- always poesentej in the same order.
Upon entering the Systems Lab, the silubect was introduced to the e'per'imenters and w'as shon the equipEn. The type of data to be- collected w'. He was told that there uould be time after the e:,peri- mernt to. The elec- trodes were in turn attached to the Dynogra. A light-sensisn pressure clip for measure g iq stol1ic blood pressure was attached to the subject': right car. The subject as as'ed to place his head in the chin rest and acclimiate himself to the efpe irr. While the subject w'as aciclinating himself, the e-'perimenters were adjusting the in;trumentc and focusing the camera on the subject's left pupil.
The ca-eira was focused rn the ioght 1 -'e and no problems occuLrrd as a result of this mir dification. He ia then as ed to re- adjust himself, i. During this minute, the c i'arusLrlt wear: rotated so that the stir'uluc and conritr'cl slides sere in pr. The tape recorder ia. The Dy:. The EF computer c :amrpled the corntininuru dat a tt a rate of 1 sail- ple per second for e;cin of the.
E'ea t- h. A total. These date er,'e stored intert ral l, in the computer until tin- study had beeri completed, nr- were then transferred to punrchej tape. Later, the dati iere again trarnsferrd this' t ie to ma - netic: tarn i.
Priimar, data analyvsi w3a done on the discrete data contained on the nm-inetic tane. The punched tape data and chart data tiere used as bacd-up data sources. Post-Test Cue:tiornai re In an attempt to develop convergent. COopy of the questionnaire is included in i.
This quertionrnire was used a: a major cc'riparison inde. The coi relation between this iide. Debriefino and Eqjuinrmerit F:ecyclinq Since subjectss iwere members of two student orgariza tions, the pos- sibility of discussion of the e-periment prior to another subject's parti- cipation existed.
Each ut. While the subject w-is l filling out tie post-test questionnaire, the. Clata Tra sfer lihC o'r; utei'r-G I. Since thi- e. The;e conr,'. Orirute i and r i. Da tr. E tnro:ti h s. Iead, for ana'l, i rr. In mri:t caies. Data Peduction Sei. In almost all cases, the second tin:me srpa during whicl each stinrulu w. Sincr the EP-3j30 served as both a director of the ei per-inrnt chang.
This left a 9-s cond aminie of each. To t-st hy. Second, percent change measure ue're in- corpLorated. Two tir. A 3-sEccnd tiTe. Inr this; cat data collected Iii the first 3 seconds of each stimulus data simple ,were corinpai'ed with dIta :olle:ted in the last 3 seconds pFccCedi rig the s e. The other tin. Peduc t 1 n iri. CCurrod in the d ta scni-r. Several subjects for e.
In a fe' other cases, c blod pressure nrd skin potential recording Y,- ste-m mralfuri. Causi rl dita cn the:os. These will e t noted. Most Ocf the analyses discussed in this chapter utilized all 18 stimuli 16 slides and 2 "startle" stimuli as treatments. Case: where the 18 were collapsed into C treatment groups pleasant.
The model served as a guile for cortitrol' used in the e perirent and for the de'eloprmernt of tne set of linear predictors used in the statistical anal. Tre rn::del alsoit enphasi es some firidinigs which are not a51i5ys ,con- sidered in e. A 2 percent dilation, therefore, might be miu. Ey using initial value as a predictor, and incorporating analysis of cvrarirnce, the m. Sini larily. The specific model used tr. Iicito 10 slide 15 predi- t. First, th, assu;, i 'p ion of li ne r'ri t,' and linear effei ct.
It doer. To test for serial effects, the Durbin. Tre Durbin-iat'ion statistitc r ringed from 1. Find ingj A :Spearman r. Tie pleajsantners;- unple asantn ii;e score i ts the va riable in r. The ub. The ranr order of the ;lides in the r,-e- te-t indererndt jud-rs grrur, nr.
Iith o-ire e-cepti or, in the rieu tr Cl :. The differences here are alo si'jnifican at the. As car be seen, the rmoJel has a multiple correltionr coefficient of 0. It doe' aopear that jnalety- arousing stim-ul do cause significantly greater dilitioris than do Other tpPs of stimuli. The 3-seconj time period, used inr the present analysis, may cause part of the confusinri results obtained.
As toodmarnsee has noted, the oriierin i and 'lear-'. It ma; be that subiects allo ed their eyes to lose focus during Ta. Error of Est. Error F to Pemo. COEeficient J7 II. Jr 29 rem-ove i.
The nari r-'. Tables and 5- present the results obtaiind from the regres. The rnultipile corr'rlti,:,n coefff icient, and corrieqiiently, the eF planned.
Again, the results of' indi idual slide: rei'es. As tbefc. ThPse firdirngs Iaise questions. The fc. As would be e-pecteJ in monel which do r'. Error S1 C, For Sion 9-Ee. Sni ilarl. Hao, t" si; 3, "a. Hypotlhesis; could not be tested due to the inrConsisT. Hyp-th-sis 7, "t loc. Heartrate decreased as a res;:onse to startle stiAuli whilee shoWrin no consistent response to pleasant sttiuli, so h,'nothesis 8, "heartrate changes will te similar whern exposed too ain:iet, -arousin.
It shoir-d nc consistent relation to pleasant stirrull, co Hnothesis 9 was not supported. H,pothesis 11 a's su reported, since no consistent r-lation hFtaeen heartrate. Hypothesis 13 was supported, pr'o'ah l; because of the relationship t 'isting between heartr-ate and L lo.
Table presents a summTar, of the hpiCithEscs and the results obtained. Table Fa ults t: I','potheP is :upper td! Anri ty-arcouting. Hiqhly ipeasurab, t tiruii will ro'r d. Ater pupil dilation than l 1 less1 pleasant stimi uli. Highli negati. Ater pupil conr tricticri thar will iess ne. Fd to ajri et, -ar-ou: ing and to pleasant stiniuli. Fesp r:r.
Dur ati. Heartrate will tale longer to return to base line in response to an-ict. Blood pressure will tate longer to return te base line in r'sp nr.
The controls used in the study, hoev,'er, were at lFast as rigorous as most reported in the literature. Although the step: taken sDekP well for the data collecCr. Better care could have been taken to de'elor, a set of slides with more closely balanced light intensities. Spot intensity on eecli slide should hiv-- been controlled. At the data recording le.
It appears that the scc. Sub jects wih. The nme-thoad b. Alternaiti ely, :e' I thir g t echni qures are. Computers today are capable Cf performing mrn:, diffiertit functions nd. Their costs are now at a 1,he1l where rniost rets archers should take tine to examine their" usefulness.
Adva i ta qes Several adiantagies accrue to the Iresearchers oho utili-c the computer. If he can de'. The comrriuter c:an overcome limitations cf hurlnn perfor-,mance cap. Because of their hi h r. As a data co llector, the c':. As the epei- mrnter has shown earlier Eeell,controls oft this tpe must be incor-pV. Perhaps on o of i he major ad '. I qui rem-nts of tnr purcha. Vendors will, in srone ca-se 3asist in the acquisition of rqui nrerit confi'uritions t hich :, :t mr'-et th-f needs rf thie u.
The machine ciuld be cor. Finally, ri. This will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter. Di sadvantatqes of ComrPuter Lisag One of the niaor disad'antagnsF of computer usage to behavioral res'rarchors is the dependence on the "systems man" such us. Lefcore system can bte utilized. Once the systemrn is cperaticnal. There may also be a tendency to accept the face validity of cornputer-generated data without questioning the data collection, trans- fer, and analysis.
When using the computer, an e:. ThF use of a com- puter does not reliiee the e. An important cornsidPration is the frequency nd rcomple -;ty of the projects to be underta'i'.
Coriputers male mostly nieces of furniture- in r research 1 aor- atcry if the e tent of their usa,3 e does not justify thi-ir" ac. In uri i'vrsit. Scome Cost-Eenefit C cns idrat i ons It is 5 rela ti vely simple mai tter to d-iscuss thl' h dvanta. Steni rnust be undert. Even thi. Thi most difficult problem lies in the generation of accuratee retiriites of the benef ,it to t.
It inaj, also hr ppern thit so:,e. For this reason, this section will treat data it, a r. In particular, vhenr uncertain nt, exists, data will be derived from the familiar weighted-average formula used in PERT and other project planning and control techniques. The hypothetical s. It is further assumed that meas, urino instru. Trents such as the television pupil i oneter and devices for assessing heartrate, blood pressure, ar d 5sin potential are readily available. The harVdiars de:-cribeJ abo.
If we asi. This rould allow. Oriputcr tC. The d! Tabl E -1 de;cri. Esti mates icre nm. Fs can be seen, the simple ,atio of annual rbenefits of the new system to annual costs is 0.
Aff Peduction in staff needed t m, ea'ur. Peduction in I. Acquisition valuE cof additional inforrration Furcrhasl -t 1 6-b1 t r,;-d,'a"-rit' memory F' rcira ;iiIm r corncle Easic mounting bo. FO0 Pe: prr in. Jern Frit l I. I t ill. C, 5,ClO Toutjl rstirratgd annual o: st I. SS y,ears. These data indicate that the. Since p A, indicating that over the 5-year period the costs associated wih th the system, e'en.
These results also support arnuMients fc. This result allows scon:e degree of confidence in the statement that. In surr:m r. If we accept the hyoo- thesis that the pupil does respond differentially to stimuli and that it could be a useful indicator of emotional reactions, then. Until this tyoe of research reaches a stage where general uniformity of results is accom- plished, it will nct be accepted as a useful techrinue for more advanced apolicatio.
Attitude Theory Given the complexity of design necessary for evaluating attitude: with physiological variables, an effort should be made to determine the additional information this d:sicn ;ields over other, more Lonventioral, measures of attitudes. At the present state of the art in pupill -ri etr icL, it al o appears that the e scale: would d yield a cqrc: ter absolute r.
Per unit c:ontri'LuuticrO and a sol ute contritution'i of infjorrcatior, could h. PFscearch o n 'tiriulu: Pre nritction PerhaFrp one of the most limiting fac. Thie near vi ic. Beyond this problem, there is the difficulty of projecting ac- titude objects through the use of visual stimuli. ESii- larly, a picture of a Nlegro rin, not ev'l.
A very difficult p'e blem must be ovecor. To date. Host of these could have been c. The hope is that some method for presenting comple. Of all stimulus t;pes, ccmple. Smnie mc thod which does not cause confounding interactions Pith the dependent variable must be developed for presenting nor. Field Fcsearch In the Iarleting area, in addition to research in stimulus pre- sentation, much work needs to be done o. Pnt aind mohilit,'. P 'r erit techniques are still v'ry "obtrusive'" and iriLer activ.
The dev',-elopmrnt of a norn-int ict'i -e reasuririg inst ur7in for research on consumer's re acti r's to p. If r-arletirigg esIarchers ps1 r, to us- Fr pi l m1 ii etrii c a useful stud, could bt r made using Fortable physiolco ical recordiri.
A phy. Finally, applications of the mini-ccmputer in physiological research car now be evaluated. With a. Of the 57, 16 were. The 1. The mediar te t wai used- tc. Each set wa; a s inificarnt'i different from the cther -et. It appears, h. Two startle stimuli--s buzzer and a drop of several inches in the chair subjects sat iri--rere also included in the an.
The study tool place in a laboratory. Subjects were seated in 3 dentist's chair, and looked into an apparatus similar to a Hess ['.
Slides were presented in random order on ; screen at the end of the bo" orpo, site the subject. The tuo startle stimuli always occurred as stimuli number 17 and A television pupillo:meter measured change in pupil sire. These variables, tcaetheI with tile liiht interisi t, of the slide screen, were recorded with a Dyrlrgraph recorder, which Droduced charts of the data for each subject.
The Eunl:er-Pa computer as coutennercEted with analog-to-digi tal onverters to the D. Each stimulus slide was preceded by a second blani sli e. The E:unl. William Fox, chairman, has long been a trusted advisor, teacher, and friend. Fox first introduced the author to the problem of psychological measurement, and his constant encouragement and enthusiasm for this project have been inspirational.
Marvin Shaw has provided expert guidance throughout the author's graduate studies. Me has served as a source of information and ideas, and has sympathetically led him through the maze of osychological testing and measurement. Walter Hill has provided some of the most rewarding learning experiences in the author's graduate program. Hill's willingness to listen to and explore the ideas of a beginning researcher is greatly appreciated.
Another member of the faculty, although not a member of the author's special committee, deserves soecial recognition and thanks. William Wilmot, former chairman of the Management Department, the author would not have entered the graduate program. The author would like to express his deepest gratitude for the many hours Dr.
Wilmot spent giving good advice and counsel. Ismet Karacan, of the U. The television pupil lometer he loaned was one of the most valuable instruments used in the study. Similarly, Dr. Kerry Kilpatrick and Dr. Tarek Khalil, of the U. Several professors provided help in the design phases of the experiment. Dawson and Joe Harrison of Ophthalmology, Dr. Robert Isaacson of Psychology have his thanks for their assistance. Two student groups in the College of Business Administration, the M. Club and Delta Sigma Pi, have his gratitude for providing subjects.
The author would like to thank Mr. Robert Lyons, in particular, for the effort he put into acquiring volunteers. Alan Copsey of the Systems Engineering Laboratory provided support above and beyond the call of duty.
During the data collection period of the study, Alan spent a large portion of his days, nights, and weekends working on the experiment.
He has the author's deepest gratitude. Several fellow graduate students helped in different phases of the study. Evan Eldridge and the staff of the Business Administration Computing Laboratory, and the staff of the Communications Department in the College of Business have the author's gratitude. Fox Major Department: Management and Business Law The purposes of this dissertation were to replicate findings previously reported in the field of pupillometricsdevelop a linear model explaining the parameters contributing to changes in pupil size, examine the feasibility of utilizing computer sampling techniques in the collection of pupillometric data, and to catalog physiological responses as covariates of the pupil.
A problem limiting advanced applications of pupillometric techniques has been a condition known as autonomic contamination, a phrase describing the dilation of the pupil when exposed to anxiety-arousing stimuli. A goal of the dissertation was the utilization of several physiological indicators to define differences between pupil responses under autonomic contamination and certain other conditions.
The study involved presentation of a set of visual stimuli slides to a group of 29 subjects, and incorporated a randomized block design. Stimuli were divided into four tyoes: pleasant, unpleasant, neutral, and anxiety-arousing. Light intensities were equated for the 16 slides used in the study. Tv;o startle stimuli were used as part of the anxiety-arousing -ix- PAGE 11 set. Environmental factors such as room light intensity and sound levels were controlled. A television pupillometer was used to monitor changes in pupil size.
Other physiological variables measured were heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and skin potential. A dynograph direct-wiring chart recorder recorded continuous samples on each of the physiological variables. These data were converted from analog continuous form to digital discrete form by a Bunker-Raymo BR process control computer, which took samples of the data at one-second intervals throughout the study. A linear model of the factors contributing to pupil size changes was developed for analytical purposes.
Step-wise linear regressions, the chi-square test, and analyses of variance were used to test the data. Other data analyses involved time-lags and descriptions of response magnitudes of the physiological variables under differing types of stimuli. Results raised questions about the usefulness of current pupillometric techniques in business research.
Variables in the regression models produced multiple correlations of 0. The corresponding explained variances of less than 40 percent indicate that there is a great deal of reactivity in the pupil which was not explained by the variables considered. Furthermore, the direction of pupil response to the four types of stimuli did not follow the patterns which have been previously reported by proponents of pupillometric techniques. It does appear that other physiological variables exhibit some amount of consistency in their reactions to anxiety-arousing stimuli.
PAGE 12 This raises the hope that one of these responses could be used as a covariate with pupil change to indicate situations in which autonomic contamination exists. Although the results tend to question the use of current pupillometric techniques in business applications, there are certain areas of laboratory research where they may still be useful.
The study and practice of management, therefore, has implicit in it a need for understanding peop1e--how they work, how they think, and how they can be most effectively utilized for progress toward organization goals. As Likert has said, "of all the tasks of management, managing the human component is the central and m.
Information on many different aspects of the human variable has been compiled. One of the most elusive, most hard-to-get-at areas of human behavior lies in the area of attitudinal and emotional feelings held by people.
Yet these are unquestionably among the most significant determinants of human behavior. The research described in this paper was an attem. Data Assessment Problems The internal states of individuals are probably among the most difficult of phenomena to measure. Many attempts have been made to develop unbiased yardsticks of the emotional and attitudinal responses of peoole.
Conventional measures of these responses such as naoer-and-oencil question PAGE 14 -2naire-type surveys have been criticized on the basis of their inability to differentiate "true" reactions from those containing elements of artifact.
In many situations, conventional measures are still relatively accurate and useful. In some situations, however, particularly in industry and in market research, respondents may have some reason to conceal their true attitudes and, in these situations, the traditional approach to measurement may be limited in its usefulness.
Lapiere was one of the first to report a discrepancy between how individuals, in response to a questionnaire, said they would act, and how they actually behaved. Cook and Selltiz presented a more comprehensive analysis of the problem of obtaining honest and valid questionnaire reactions from respondents. The problems of social desirability responding with the socially "correct" answer: Rosenthal,demand characteristics cues which convey the goals of the study: Orne,and evaluation apprehension fear of being negatively evaluated: Rosenberg,have also been suggested as contributors to bias in most types of questionnaire measures, Krugmanin a marketing research study, surveyed results which show how social desirability and demand characteristics interact to distort several types of questionnaire data.
PAGE 15 Other types of methodologies used in attempts to assess emotional and attitudinal responses, Lälly - Various - Maaseuturokkia (CD), such as the projective techniques used by flcClelland, have proved to be somewhat useful. The training required to be able to use projective assessment techniques is long and rigorous, and the scoring methodology at best presents many areas where errors of interpretation or other experimenter effects could bias data. The score on some types of projective techniques, in addition, is to a large degree a function of the vocabulary of the respondent see McClelland, Both questionnaire methods and projective techniques, therefore, are subject to several sources of assessment error.
The theory of pupillometrics is based on the hypothesis that the pupils dilate in response to pleasurable or favorable stimuli, and contract in response to negative or distasteful ones. Since the eye is part of the autonomic nervous system, individuals presumably cannot consciously control changes in the pupil. If it is The research on conditioning of the puoillary response has nroduced equivocal results.
Several investigations Cason, ; Metzner and Baber, ; Girden, ; Crasilneck and McCranie, reported oositive results in attempts to condition the pupil. It seems that just as many studies, however, reported contrary findings Stickle and Crenshae, ; Wedell, et al. Even when conditioning is achieved, however, the process is quite long, and appears to be limited to a specific type of individual. PAGE 16 possible to rrisasure changes in the pupil, and if the logic mentioned above is valid, then it should be possible to obtain a true or objective measure of attitudinal responses to a stimulus.
Pupillometric assessment should offer several advantages over other types of reaction indicators. The response to the stimulus is very fast --usually beginning in less than a second. As mentioned previously, it is difficult to fake a pupillometric response, since pupil changes are autonomic i. A third possible advantage may stem from the bi-directional changes of the pupil--while most physiological indicators give only an indication of the size of the response, pupil changes shov; both size and direction.
Previous work with physiological variables, such as that done by Cooper and Pollack on prejudicial attitudes and the galvanic skin response GSR might have derived more benefit from the bi-directional pupillary response approach.
Traditional Pupillometric Techniques The methodology employed in pupillometric experiments has been outlined by Hess and Polt and Hess Briefly, a pupillometric experiment requires some type of stimulus input device, and some type of device for recording pupillary change.
Most pupil lom. Other types of stimuli which have been used include liquids for taste researchstilland motion-oictures for market researchsounds auditory researchand several types using PAGE 17 -5cognitive information processing, physical work, or startling sounds as independent variables. Most experimenters use rapid frame cameras to take pictures of the eye, and measure changes in pupil size from the pictures.
In the most common type of pupillometric study, the subject is seated before a rectangular box with a view screen in one end. In order to minimize measurement errors resulting from head movement, the subject's head is usually immobilized placed in a chin rest, sometimes with an elastic strap holding the forehead against a bar.
Equipment for projecting slides into the view screen is situated outside the box. A mirror system whereby a motion picture or rapid frame camera can photograph changes in the eye is used.
Since the eye is highly reactive to light changes, slides are usually controlled for light intensity, and photography is performed using infra-red equipment. When developed, the photographs are measured by hand, using calipers or millimeter scales or grids. Pupil lometrics in Business Research As will be seen in Chapter II, pupil lometrics was first employed as a business research method in the field of marketing research in the 's. The potential of pupil lometrics in this and other business fields will be discussed below.
The Personnel Function The personnel function is an area of managerial decision making which may benefit from more accurate information about attitudes and values held PAGE 18 -6by potential and present err.
There are some types of managerial positions where specific attitudes and values have been shown to be critical components of success Levinson, Certain positions, for example, require that incumbents be able to perform effectively in situations involving substantial uncertainty and high risk.
Many individuals have to assume responsibility for handling and committing large sums of corporate funds. Other attitudes and values which may be important include those concerning minority groups, corporate ethics, social responsibility, or those necessary for working in "organic" forms of organizations. Although pupillometrics is not today at a stage where attitudes and values such as those mentioned above could be readily m. It may be that physiological measures, when coupled with other types of assessment, will provide practitioners with the type of data needed to evaluate candidates along these dimensions of "personality".
PAGE 19 -7Certain ethical questions andquestions of acceptability are raised when industrial applications of physiological measurement systems are contemplated. In organizations where high level job candidates are normally conducted through some type of psychiatric or psychological evaluation procedure, pupillometrics may be accepted as a matter of course.
In organizations where the technique may be deemed undesirable, pupillometrics may still contribute meaningfully. One of the hopes of developing an easily useable and accurate method for evaluating attitudes and values is to use it as a tool for validating other types of devices which may be useful or more acceptable for some types of assessment problems.
Pupillometrics has been shown to be a useful indicator of certain types of stress and anxiety levels Hess, band of noise levels Nunnally, et al. Pupil response systems might prove to be valuable aids in designing jobs and work environments through the study of their effects on physiological systems.
Marketing Research Perhaps pupillometrics is one of the oldest known marketing tools. Hess noted that Chinese jade dealers had employed the technique for centuries, watching their client's eyes to tell when his interest in the product was highest, then making the sales pitch. More scientific studies of the pupil in marketing research were conducted by Brandtwho used "ocular photography" to measure responses to advertising messages.
Krugman previewed a series of studies where pupil response was shown to be indicative of interest in products such as sterling silverware and greeting cards, and also presented data supporting inter-subject consistency in pupil response rankings and sales rank data.
Hess and Polt performed research on taste stimuli which could be construed as product preference research, and were able to demonstrate correlations between pupil size and expressed preferences for certain drinks.
The same study also found that both strong positive and strong negative aversive taste stimuli dilated the pupil. This finding lends credence to the hypothesis presented by some researchers that magnitude of response, not direction, may be the most important indicator of feelings.
Halpern presented data on pupil responses to TV commercial and packaging, and noted that contractions were usually found to be associated with Lälly - Various - Maaseuturokkia (CD) which "lack the power to interest or arouse the viewer" p. Hess a reviewed additional successful applications of pupillometrics to advertising and packaging research.
Scope of the Problem Area Methodological Improvements Methodology is a factor limiting the overall usefulness of most new techniques. In pupillometrics, areas needing improvement are methods of data collection and analysis. Typically, photographs of the eye are taken PAGE 21 -9continuously throughout a pupillonietric experiment. These ohotogranhs must be developed, and are then measured by hand to determine pupil diameter on each photograph.
This v:riter has previously demonstrated, on the basis of a simple study, that a possibility of making major errors in data interpretation exists when experimenters measure pupil diameter by hand Bell, This problem of expectancy error is compounded by the sheer number of measurements to be made.
For example, a study involving 20 subjects, with 15 stimuli and 15 control stimuli shown for 10 seconds each, with photographs taken at 1-second intervals during the experiment, would require the development and measurement of 6, photographs.
Further, a lag time exists between the time the experiment is conducted and the time the experimenter determines whether his data are useable--i. One of the major goals of the research reported in this dissertation was the development of computer sampling techniques to circumvent the tedious and perhaps unreliable methods of data collection mentioned above. The method used in this research involved a TV Pupil lometer a video camera, capable of continuously recording a picture of the eye and measuring pupil diameter tied into a Dynograph recorder a device providing charts of pupil and other physiological changes and a Bunker-Ramo BR process control hybrid computer.
The computer sampled data once per second, and converted the data from analog continuous form to digital discrete form through the use of an analog-to-digital converter. The feasibility and general applicability of this technique for laboratory and non-laboratory settings is discussed in the paper.
PAGE 22 Autonomic Contamination of the Pupil Response A major problem associated with pupil lometrics at the present state of the art is caused by reactions of the autonomic nervous system to certain types of stimuli. Instead of being a "clean" indicator of a favorable response to stimuli, pupillary dilation is also caused by some very nonpleasurable stimuli, such as fear and pain Hess, a and strongly distasteful liquids Hess and Polt, Since pupil size changes associated with most stimuli are relatively small, it is highly possible that autonomic reactions could give investigators completely reversed data from what they expect.
A high degree of fear associated with an attitude object, for example, could, by causing pupil dilation, indicate a very favorable respone to the stimulus. To achieve a better understanding of why these responses occur, and how they might be "controlled" partialled out of the data analysisa discussion of the autonomic nervous system is necessary.
The autonomic nervous system The word autonomic has been defined as "acting independently of volition. The ANS is generally concerned with the regulation of the visceral system Lälly - Various - Maaseuturokkia (CD) the body, and attempts to maintain "homeostatic equillibrium" in the face of varying external factors PAGE 23 -n affecting the body Gellhorn,d.
The SNS generally provides emergency responses, while the PNS attempts to mediate or slow down autonomic activities, and restore normal metabolism Sternbach, p. The dilator muscles in the pupil are innervated by the SNS, while the sphincter muscles, which constrict the pupil, are controlled by the PNS Milner,p.
The size of the pupil is controlled by the antagonistic interactions of the two sub-systems. In general, excitation of the sympathetic system causes contractim of the dilator muscle, which in turn dilates the ounil, while parasymnathetic excitation causes the sphincter muscle to constrict the pupil Grossman,p.
That is, in times of high states of fear or pain, the sympathetic system "takes over" control of the eye Isaacson, et al. This finding will be the basis of the experimental design to be described later in this paner. It should be possible, if the finding is valid, to monitor the SNS and PNS and observe variables other than the pupil heartrate, blood pressure, skin potential, for example to define levels of SNS and PNS activation, and thereby obtain insights into the pupillary response.
When both systems are normally active, the findings hypothesized by Hess should occur. When the SNS dominates, however, we should expect findings contrary to those associated with "normal" affective reactions of the pupil. If levels of activity of other autonomic variables such as the ones mentioned above can be shown to correspond with the sympathetic dominance, then the fear and pain responses can be partialled out of the pupil response by concurrently monitoring other variables.
PAGE 25 S u mm a ry It appears that pupillometrics is a fruitful tool for conducting research on the emotional and attitudinal feelings held by people. The technique may have applications in management and marketing research. Methodological shortcomings and autonomic contamination are two confounding variables which presently limit its usefulness. The goals of the study reported in this paper are to improve the methodology of pupillometrics and reduce the problem of autonomic contamination.
As this literature review will show, pupil change has been used as a dependent variable in altitude research, psychiatric research, marketing research, and gustatory taste and auditory research.
Puoil size has been shown to be a general indicator of physical and mental activity, emotional arousal, and interest value of visual stimuli.
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