In ancient Persiathe Achaemenid Empire BC— BC built small barrel vaults essentially a series of arches built together to form a hall known as iwanwhich became massive, monumental structures during the later Parthian Empire BC—AD The ancient Romans learned the arch from the Etruscansrefined it and were the first builders in Europe to tap its full potential for above ground buildings:. The Romans were the first builders in Europe, perhaps the first in the world, to fully appreciate the advantages of the arch, the vault and the dome.
Throughout the Roman empiretheir engineers erected arch structures such as bridgesaqueductsand gates. They also introduced the triumphal arch as a military monument.
Vaults began The Leisure Society - Tearing The Arches Down (CDr) be used for roofing large interior spaces such as halls and temples, a function that was also assumed by domed structures from the The Leisure Society - Tearing The Arches Down (CDr) century BC onwards.
They were also routinely used in house construction, as in Ostia Antica see picture. In ancient Chinamost architecture was woodenincluding the few known arch bridges from literature and one artistic depiction in stone-carved relief. China's oldest surviving stone arch bridge is the Anji Bridgebuilt between and during the Sui Dynasty ; it is the oldest open- spandrel segmental arch bridge in stone. However, the ancient Romans had virtually all of these components beforehand; for example, Trajan's Bridge had open spandrels built in wood The Leisure Society - Tearing The Arches Down (CDr) stone pillars.
The first example of an early Gothic arch in Europe is in Sicily in the Greek fortifications of Gela. The semicircular arch was followed in Europe by the pointed Gothic arch or ogivewhose centreline more closely follows the forces of compression and which is therefore stronger. The semicircular arch can be flattened to make an elliptical arch, as in the Ponte Santa Trinita. The first examples of the pointed arch in the European architecture are in Sicily and date back to the Arab-Norman period.
The horseshoe arch is based on the semicircular arch, but its lower ends are extended further round the circle until they start to converge. The first known built horseshoe arches are from the Kingdom of Aksum in modern-day Ethiopia and Eritreadating from ca. This is around the same time as the earliest contemporary examples in Roman Syriasuggesting either an Aksumite or Syrian origin for the type.
The earliest arch appeared in South Asia as a barrel vault in the Late Harappan Cemetery H culture dated BC BC which formed the roof of the metal working furnance, the discovery was made by Vats in during excavation at Harappa. Although introduced in the 5th century, arches didn't gain prominence in the Indian architecture until 12th century after Islamic conquest.
The Gupta era arch vault system was later used extensively in Burmese Buddhist temples in Pyu and Bagan in 11th and 12th centuries. This article does not deal with a different architectural element, the corbel arch.
However, it is worthwile mentioning that corbel arches were found in other parts of ancient Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas. Since it is a pure compression form, the arch is useful because many building materials, including stone and unreinforced concretecan resist compressionbut are weak when tensile stress is applied to them ref: similar to the AL-Karparo . An arch is held in place by the weight of all of its members, making construction problematic.
One answer is to build a frame historically, of wood which exactly follows the form of the underside of the arch.
This is known as a centre or centring. Voussoirs are laid on it until the arch is complete and self-supporting. For an arch higher than head height, scaffolding would be required, so it could be combined with the arch support.
Arches may fall when the frame is removed if design or construction has been faulty. The first attempt at the A85 bridge at DalmallyScotland suffered this fate, in the s. Old arches sometimes need reinforcement due to decay of the keystonesforming what is known as bald arch. In reinforced concrete construction, the principle of the arch is used so as to benefit from the concrete's strength in resisting compressive stress. Where any other form of stress is raised, such as tensile or torsional stress, it has to be resisted by carefully placed reinforcement rods or fibres.
A depressed arch is one that appears "squashed" down at the top from the full arched shape. In pointed-arch styles, where there is a central point at the top of the arch, it may be a four-centred arch or Tudor arch. A The Leisure Society - Tearing The Arches Down (CDr) arch is an arch infilled with solid construction so it cannot function as a window, door, or passageway. These are common as decorative treatments of a wall surface in many architectural styles, especially Romanesque architecture.
A special form of the arch is the triumphal archusually built to celebrate a victory in war. A famous example is the Arc de Triomphe in ParisFrance. Rock formations may form natural arches through erosionrather than being carved or constructed. Some rock balance sculptures are in the form of an arch. The arches of the foot support the weight of the human body. A rock balance sculpture in the form of an arch.
Medial longitudinal arch of the human foot Gray's Anatomy. Restored Canaanite city gate of AshkelonAshkelonIsrael Arch of GallienusRome Arch of HadrianAthensGreece The Arc de TriompheParis ; a 19th-century triumphal arch modelled on the classical Roman design Gateway Arch in St.
Louis, Missouri ; a sculpture based on a catenary arch Bridge of SighsVeniceItaly Eiffel TowerParis Arch supporting the Eiffel TowerParis The second Wembley Stadium in Londonbuilt in St Pancras railway stationLondon Train shed in St Pancras railway stationLondon Train shed in Victoria StationLondon Central railway stationFrankfurtGermany Train shed in Central railway stationFrankfurtGermany Haus der Kulturen der WeltBerlinGermany The Colosseum in Rome Amir Chakhmaq ComplexYazdIran Stonework arches seen in a ruined stonework building — Burg LippspringeGermany Arches in throne room of Neuschwanstein CastleBavariaGermany photochrom print.
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