A flange is an external or internal ridgeor rim lipfor strengthas the flange of an iron beam such as an I-beam or a T-beam ; or for attachment to another object, as the flange on the end of a pipe, steam cylinder, etc. Thus flanged wheels are wheels with a flange on one side to keep the wheels from running off the rails. The term "flange" is also used for a kind of tool used to form flanges.
Pipes with flanges can be assembled and disassembled easily. A flange can also be a plate or ring to form a rim at the end of a pipe when fastened to the pipe for example, a closet flange. A blind flange is a plate for covering or closing the end of a pipe. A flange joint is a connection of pipes, where the connecting pieces have flanges by which the parts are bolted together. Although the word flange generally refers to the actual raised rim or lip of a fitting, many flanged plumbing fittings are themselves known as 'flanges':.
Common flanges used in plumbing are the Surrey flange or Danzey flange, York flange, Sussex flange and Essex flange. Surrey and York flanges fit to the top of the hot water tank allowing all the water to Flang taken without disturbance to the tank. They are often used to ensure an even flow of water to showers. An Essex flange requires a hole to be drilled in the side of the tank. There is also a Warix flange which is the same as a York flange but the shower output is on the top of the flange and the vent on the side.
The York and Warix flange have female adapters so that they fit onto a male tank, whereas the Surrey flange connects to a female tank. A closet flange provides the mount for a toilet. There are many different flange standards to be found worldwide. To allow easy functionality and interchangeability, these are designed to have standardised dimensions. In most cases these are interchangeable as most local standards have been aligned to ISO standards, however, some local standards still differ e.
Further, many of the flanges in each standard are divided into "pressure classes", allowing flanges to be capable of taking different pressure ratings. Again these are not generally interchangeable e. These pressure classes also have differing pressure and temperature ratings for different materials. Unique pressure classes for piping can also be developed for a process plant or power generating station; these may be specific to the corporation, engineering procurement and construction EPC contractor, Flang, or the process plant owner.
The flange faces are also made to standardized dimensions and are typically "flat face", "raised face", " tongue and groove ", or " ring joint " styles, although other obscure styles are possible. Flange designs are available as " weld neck ", "slip-on", "lap joint", "socket weld", " threaded ", and also "blind". They are typically made from forged materials and have machined surfaces. ASME B Each specification further delineates flanges into pressure classes:,and for B However these classes do not correspond to maximum pressures in psi.
Instead, the maximum pressure depends on the material of the flange and the temperature. In addition, there are many "industry standard" flanges that in some circumstance may be used on ASME work. The bolting material used for flange connection is stud bolts mated with two nut washer when required. The different forms of flanges within the EN European Norm Euronorm is indicated within the flange name through the type.
Similar to ASME flanges, EN steel and stainless flanges, have several different versions of raised or none raised faces. According to the European form the seals are indicated by different form:. Flanges in the rest of the world are manufactured according to the ISO standards for materials, pressure ratings, etc.
As the Compact flange size increase it becomes relatively increasingly heavy and complex resulting in high procurement, installation and maintenance costs. Large flange diameters in particular are difficult to work with, and inevitably require more space and have a more challenging handling and installation procedure, particularly on remote installations such as oil rigs.
The design of the flange face includes two independent seals. Which are the most common types of flanges used in piping? How do they look like? The key types of flanges are the welding neck, long welding neck, slip-on, socket weld, lap joint, threaded and blind flanges.
The type of flange to be used for a piping application depends, mainly, on the required strength for the flanged joint. Flanges are used, alternatively to welded connections, to facilitate maintenance operations a flanged joint can be dismantled quickly and conveniently.
The dimension of the flange NPS and the pipe schedule shall match the dimension of the connecting pipe. A welding neck flange is connected to a pipe by a single full penetration V-shaped butt weld.
The dimension and weights of ASME weld neck flanges are shown in this article. The bore size of a slip-on flange is larger than the outside diameter of the connecting pipe, as the pipe has to slide inside the flange to be connected by the execution of a fillet weld. Flanged joints made with slip-on flanges are, in the long run, a bit more fragile than connections made with welding neck flanges in similar service conditions.
This seems due to the following facts:. Another advantage of the welding neck flange is that it can be connected either to pipes and fittings, whereas socket weld flanges suit pipes only. Threaded flanges are also a mandatory requirement in explosive areas, such as gas stations and plants, as the execution of welded connections in such environments would be Flang.
This gap shall be left to allow proper positioning of the pipe inside the flange socket after the solidification of the weld. This due to the fact that these flange types are subject to corrosion in the gap area between the end of the pipe and the shoulder of the socket.
A lap joint flange slips over the pipe and seats on the back of the stub end and the two are kept together by the pressure of the bolts. The use of lap joint flanges in combination with stub ends is a cost-effective solution for stainless steel or nickel alloy pipelines, as the material of the lap joint flange can be of a lower grade generally carbon steel than the material of the stub end which has to match the pipe grade, as in contact with the conveyed fluid. Blind flanges have to withstand remarkable mechanical stress Flang to the system pressure and the required bolting forces.
Blind flanges allow easy access to the pipeline, as they can be easily unbolted to let the operator execute activities inside the terminal end of the pipe this is also the reason why the blind flange type is used as manhole for pressure vessels, at times. It is maybe interesting to observe that, while this flanges type is easier to manufacture, they are sold at a premium average cost per kilogram compared to the other flange types.
Nipoflanges are also manufactured in the reinforced variant, which has additional mechanical strength compared to a standard Nipoflange. Weldoflanges are made out of a single piece of solid forged steel, not by welding separate parts together. Swivel ring flanges facilitate the alignment of the bolt holes between the two mating flanges, a feature that is helpful in many circumstances, such as the installation of large diameter pipelines, subsea and offshore pipelines, pipe works in shallow waters and similar environments.
Swivel flanges are available in all the standard shapes of common flanges, i. Expanding flanges can be used to increase the run pipe bore only by one or maximum two sizes and Flang more example: from 2 to 3 or maximum 4 inches. The most common materials for expanding flanges are A high-temp. The drawing of an ASME expanding flange. Reducing flanges, otherwise called reducer flanges, have an opposite function than expander flanges seen above, i, Flang.
The bore of the run pipe can be safely reduced by only 1 or 2 sizes otherwise a solution based on the combination of a butt weld reducer and a standard flange has to be used. Reducing flanges are available in most sizes and material grades, and are not generally available from stock. Reducing flanges follow the same considerations in terms of specifications, sizes and material grades as expander flanges. The last type of forged product that resembles the shape of a flange is the so-called spectacle blind : while not properly a flange, a blind or a ring spacer or spade is used in between pipes to isolate the pipeline mechanically and in a very easy way.
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