Bud Powell. Bud Powell's Modernists. I'm in the Mood for Groovin'. James Moody. Lullaby of Birdland. George Shearing. A Night in Tunisia. The Quintet.
Joy Spring. Clifford Brown. Koko Charlie Parker. Allen's Alley Denzil Best. Yardbird Suite Charlie Parker. Move Denzil Best. Bouncing with Bud Bud Powell. Genre Jazz Blues Vocal. Recording Date March 28, - December 18, Track Listing. Romance Without Finance. Tiny Grimes. Dizzy Gillespie. Salt Peanuts. Mean to Me. Fred E.
Thelonious Monk. A Night in Tunisia. Ol' Man Rebop. Lover Man. Charlie Parker. I Woke Up Dizzy. Neal Hefti. Bernard Miller. Kai Winding, 52nd Street Theme - Various - Be-Bop Masters (CD). The Man I Love. Wardell Gray. Byas became the first tenor saxophone player to fully assimilate the new bebop style in his playing.
In the crew of innovators was joined by Dexter Gordona tenor saxophone player from the west coast in New York with the Louis Armstrong band, and a young trumpet player attending the Juilliard School of MusicMiles Davis.
Bebop originated as "musicians' music", played by musicians with other money-making gigs who did not care about the commercial potential of the new music.
It did not attract the attention of major record labels nor was it intended to. Some of the early bebop was recorded informally. Formal recording of bebop was first performed for small specialty labels, who were less concerned with mass-market appeal than the major labels, in Parker, Gillespie, and others working the bebop idiom joined the Earl Hines Orchestra inthen followed vocalist Billy Eckstine out of the band into the Billy Eckstine Orchestra in The Eckstine band was recorded on V-discswhich were broadcast over the Armed Forces Radio Network and gained popularity for the band showcasing the new bebop style.
The format of the Eckstine band, featuring vocalists and entertaining banter, would later be emulated by Gillespie and others leading bebop-oriented big bands in a style that might be termed "popular bebop". Thereafter, Gillespie would record bebop prolifically and gain recognition as one of its leading figures. By bebop was established as a broad-based movement among New York jazz musicians, including trumpeters Fats Navarro and Kenny Dorhamtrombonists J.
The new music was gaining radio exposure with broadcasts such as those hosted by "Symphony Sid" Torin. Parker and Thompson remained in Los Angeles after the rest of the band left, performing and recording together for six months before Parker suffered an addiction-related breakdown in July. Parker was again active in Los Angeles in early Parker and Thompson's tenures in Los Angeles, the arrival of Dexter Gordon and Wardell Gray later inand the promotional efforts of Ross RussellNorman Granzand Gene Norman helped solidify the city's status as a center of the new music.
Gillespie, with his extroverted personality and humor, glasses, lip beard and beret, would become the most visible symbol of the new music and new jazz culture in popular consciousness. That of course slighted the contributions of others with whom he had developed the music over the preceding years.
His show style, influenced by black vaudeville circuit entertainers, seemed like a throwback to some and offended some purists "too much grinning" according to Miles Davisbut it was laced with a subversive sense of humor that gave a glimpse of attitudes on racial matters that black musicians had previously kept away from the public at large. Before the Civil Rights Movement, Gillespie was confronting the racial divide by lampooning it.
The intellectual subculture that surrounded bebop made it something of a sociological movement as well as a musical one. With the imminent demise of the big swing bands, bebop had become the dynamic focus of the jazz world, with a 52nd Street Theme - Various - Be-Bop Masters (CD) "progressive jazz" movement seeking to emulate and adapt its devices. It was to be the most influential foundation of jazz for a generation of jazz musicians.
Bybebop musicians such as Clifford Brown and Sonny Stitt began to smooth out the rhythmic eccentricities of early bebop. Instead of using jagged phrasing to create rhythmic interest, as the early boppers had, these musicians constructed their improvised lines out of long strings of eighth notes and simply accented certain notes 52nd Street Theme - Various - Be-Bop Masters (CD) the line to create rhythmic variety.
The early s also saw some smoothing in Charlie Parker's style. During the early s bebop remained at the top of awareness of jazz, while its harmonic devices were adapted to the new "cool" school of jazz led by Miles Davis and others. As musicians and composers began to work with expanded music theory during the mids, its adaptation by musicians who worked it into the basic dynamic approach of bebop would lead to the development of post-bop.
Around that same time, a move towards structural simplification of bebop occurred among musicians such as Horace Silver and Art Blakeyleading to the movement known as hard bop. Development of jazz would occur through the interplay of bebop, cool, post-bop, and hard bop styles through the s. Bebop differed drastically from the straightforward compositions of the swing era and was instead characterized by fast tempos, asymmetrical phrasing, intricate melodiesand rhythm sections that expanded on their role as tempo-keepers.
The music itself seemed jarringly different to the ears of the public, who were used to the bouncy, organized, danceable tunes of Benny Goodman and Glenn Miller during the swing era. Instead, bebop appeared to sound racing, nervous, erratic and often fragmented. But to jazz musicians and jazz music lovers, bebop was an exciting and beautiful revolution in the art of jazz. It was just modern music, we would call it. We wouldn't call it anything, really, just music. While swing music tended to feature orchestrated big band arrangements, bebop music highlighted improvisation.
Typically, a theme a "head," often the main melody of a pop or jazz standard of the swing era would be presented together at the beginning and the end of each piece, with improvisational solos based on the chords of the tune. Thus, the majority of a song in bebop style would be improvisation, the only threads holding the work together being the underlying harmonies played by the rhythm section.
Sometimes improvisation included references to the original melody or to other well-known melodic lines "quotes", "licks" or "riffs". Sometimes they were entirely original, spontaneous melodies from start to finish. Chord progressions for bebop tunes were often taken directly from popular swing-era songs and reused with a new and more complex melody, forming new compositions see contrafact.
This practice was already well-established in earlier jazz, but came to be central to the bebop style. Late bop also moved towards extended forms that represented a departure from pop and show tunes.
Bebop chord voicings often dispensed with the root and fifth tones, instead basing them on the leading intervals that defined the tonality of the chord. That opened up creative possibilities for harmonic improvisation such as tritone substitutions and use of diminished scale 52nd Street Theme - Various - Be-Bop Masters (CD) improvised lines that could resolve to the key center in numerous and surprising ways. Bebop musicians also employed several harmonic devices not typical of 52nd Street Theme - Various - Be-Bop Masters (CD) jazz.
Complicated harmonic substitutions for more basic chords became commonplace. This unprecedented harmonic development which took place in bebop is often traced back to a transcendent moment experienced by Charlie Parker while performing " Cherokee " at Clark Monroe's Uptown House, New York, in early As described by Parker: .
I'd been getting bored with the stereotyped changes that were being used, I could hear it sometimes. I couldn't play it I was working 52nd Street Theme - Various - Be-Bop Masters (CD) "Cherokee", and, as I did, I found that by using the higher intervals of a chord as a melody line and backing them with appropriately related changes, I could play the thing I'd been hearing.
It came alive. Gerhard Kubik postulates that the harmonic development in bebop sprung from the bluesand other African-related tonal sensibilities, rather than twentieth century Western art music, as some have suggested. Kubik states: "Auditory inclinations were the African legacy in [Parker's] life, reconfirmed by the experience of the blues tonal system, a sound world at odds with the Western diatonic chord categories.
Bebop musicians eliminated Western-style functional harmony in their music while retaining the strong central tonality of the blues as a basis for drawing upon various African matrices. While for an outside observer the harmonic innovations in bebop would appear to be inspired by experiences in Western "serious" music, from Claude Debussy to Arnold Schoenbergsuch a scheme cannot be sustained by the evidence from a cognitive approach.
Claude Debussy did have some influence on jazz, for example, on Bix Beiderbecke 's piano playing, and it is also true that Duke Ellington adopted and reinterpreted some harmonic devices in European contemporary music.
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