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The War Department discourages anything that would possibly suggest to men that chaplains did not zealously guard intimate knowledge and confidence. He introduced the article by saying: Remember, friends, this report is unofficial and has no connection with any report that may come from the War Department.

These are my personal observations and feelings about the men on trial at Nuremberg. Sauckel, he reported, was his first communicant. He prayed regularly with Chaplain Gerecke, often ending with: "God be merciful to me, a sinner. Keitel, Gerecke wrote, "asked me to convey his thanks to the Christian people of America for sending a chaplain to them. May Christ, my Saviour, stand by me all the way. I shall need him so much. I am glad that you and Pater Sixtus, at least, still come to talk to me.

If you could say "virgin" about a man, you would say it about him — so delicate, so sympathetic, so maidenly — you know what I mean. I look forward to Christmas now like a little child. I'm quite a philosopher myself, you know. I've often thought about this business about God creating the universe. I always ask myself, if God made everything, who made God? You see, you can go crazy thinking about that. It sounds like propaganda. Goering was always the first to the little chapel, sat in front and sang louder than anyone.

It's just a chance to get out of this damn cell for a half hour. He would only admit a belief in Almighty Power but scoffed at Christianity. During this time, the chaplains became particularly close to the children.

A rumor had spread See footnotes at end of chapter. A letter was written to Mrs. Gerecke in St. Louis, signed by all 21 defendants, asking her to understand how much they benefited from him for 6 months and how deeply they needed him for the future.

Gerecke's wife immediately wrote him and told him he must stay. O'Connor and Chap- lain Gerecke were untiringly moving from condemned cell to condemned cell," reported the Commandant. But since he still refused to make a confession of Christian faith, the chaplain, following his denominational convictions, refused to give him the sacrament. Two hours later Gerecke was quickly summoned again — only to find that Goering had taken a concealed cyanide capsule. The chaplain knelt beside him trying to get some re- sponse, but it was too late.

In his own way Goering had cheated his enemies out of the final victory. One author later wrote : When Hitler ordered that the men implicated in the plot of the 20th of July,should be denied the consolations of religion before their execution, the world was horrified at his inhumanity; from the minister of a Christian Church one might reasonably have expected a higher degree of Christian charity.

There are perhaps no lines in the English language more moving than those of the old ballad : "Between the stirrup and the ground He mercy sought and mercy found, — " Certainly there are none more expressive of the grace of God freely offered even to the most miserable of sinners. That mercy was refused by the prison chaplain, as far as it lay in his power to refuse it, to Hermann Goring.

The chaplains went into separate cells for personal prayers and private devotions," wrote Gerecke. The bodies of the executed were secretly taken to Dachau and incinerated in the ovens of the concentration camp. By way of example, Chaplain Edward L.

Elson, Presbyterian, had made an official survey of the imprisoned clergy at Dachau. The results, later included as part of the War Crimes Board material, indicated there had been 2, Christian ministers in the camp but that only 1, were still living on the day of the camp's liberation. Along with the 2, captives who were found barely alive were several hundred unburied bodies and five common graves con- taining the remains of Before the bodies were removed, all of the citizens of Wobbelin and ten leading citizens of Schwerin were required to view the horrors.

Included among them, under the supervision of the chaplain, was the pastor of St. Paul's Parish in Schwerin. The pastor later dictated a six-page report in which he repeatedly struggled, like the judges at Nuremberg, with the ethical question of the ultimate responsibility for such atrocities. The citizens of the area were required to dig graves for new cemeteries and reverently transpose the bodies from the camp. The chief magistrates of the towns were then directed to have prepared permanent stone markers for each of the cemeteries with the following inscription, written by Chaplain Wildman : Here lie the bodies of number victims of Nazi atrocity from Poland, Russia, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Holland, and Germany, who died of starvation and brutality in the Wobbelin Concentration Camp.

Buried date under supervision of the 8th Infantry Division, U. Army, by whom the surviving prisoners of the camp were liberated God is our Refuge and Strength. The trial of the most prominent opened in Tokyo on 3 May and 28 defendants faced the long and arduous court proceedings that lasted until November Two of the defendants died during that period and one was declared unfit to stand trial.

Of the 25 who remained at the time of sentencing, 7 were executed, 16 received life imprisonment, and 2 were imprisoned for specific periods. The most famous of the group, Tojo Hideki, former Prime Minister and Minister of War, had unsuccessfully attempted sui- cide on the day of his arrest. To provide a ministry for these men was even more of a challenge than that faced at Nuremberg. Clemens, Methodist, and Francis P. Scott, Roman Catholic. Obviously, however, there were language and religious barriers that prevented the type of deeply personal ministry experienced by the chaplains at Nuremberg.

Since 90 percent of the prisoners were Buddhist, a request was made to the Japanese government for a Buddhist priest who could be employed as a civilian chaplain. On 14 FebruaryChaplain Clemens and other prison officials interviewed an application named Shinsho Hana- yama.

Satisfied that he would be able to provide the ministry they sought for the prisoners, they informed him that he could begin his work the following week. Throughout the centuries men of many faiths and diverse origins have found in the Sacred Book words of wisdom, counsel and inspiration.

It is a fountain of strength and now, as See footnotes at end of chapter. Reflecting on those words, Hanayama wrote : The act of the President in officially making this recommenda- tion to think on spiritual things filled me with admiration. And knowing that all Americans serving in the Pacific went to the front with this Bible in their pockets, I felt as though cold perspiration were running down my spine.

For how many of our supreme commanders had taught their subordinates the importance of hav- ing religious faith? In this point alone it can be said that we were beaten before we started. And I thought to myself then how strange that now I should be called upon to preach the truth and the need for faith to these very leaders.

Army chaplains via interpreters and Hanayama. In the conclusion he noted : Lastly, one more thing I want to say to you is that you must always study the words of God well. Those words will be taught you by your mother and other people. Then, you will be able to see a glorious Japan, which though I want to see it I cannot behold.

Praying to God the Father, in Heaven, that you may grow up blessed by the mercy and protection of Jesus Christ, the redeemer of human sins — Amen. His thoughts seemed to reflect the sentiments of many of those who had worked closely with the prisoners.

As he listened to the proceedings he began to regret that the United States had not sent them missionaries instead of scrap iron and oil. One, stationed at the Philippine Deten- See footnotes at end of chapter. Responding to the inquiry that resulted, his supervisory chaplain claimed that the writer, whose primary respon- sibility for ministry was to the prison guards, wanted to attend every execution of a prisoner and annoint every body regardless of faith. The senior chaplain further indicated that the spiritual needs of the prisoners were more than adequately met by the services of a Japanese Roman Catholic priest and the other chaplains assigned.

Thirty years later, retired Chaplain Oscar W. Schoech, Missouri Synod Lutheran, who had also served at Sugamo in Tokyo, reflected succinctly : There were many things in connection with the numerous execu- tions which I witnessed which I did not care to put into writing and I am grateful that time has erased many of these things from my memory.

Army chaplains among the thousands of lesser-known captives, both in the United States and abroad, may have been more significant. Along with four other chaplains, he set out to bring a "rebirth of religion" among theGerman prisoners under the command of the 88th. Although Chaplain Oscar H. Reinboth, Missouri Synod Lutheran, was the only one who spoke German fluently, they managed to locate and enlist the aid of former German clergymen among the prisoners.

Attendance at worship services ran as high as 70 percent of those able to attend. An American-appointed chaplain posted the traditional Wehrmacht chaplain's sign outside his tent.

It read 'Kriegspfarrer,' or 'War Clergyman. Schroeder, who later became a professor at Concordia Theological Seminary in St. Among the prisoners in the four large camps covered by Chaplain William V.

O'Connor, Roman Catholic, was the Japanese general who formerly commanded the island. When asked why, the general speculated that there would have been no war if all men were Christians. Chaplain O'Connor acknowledged that as a possibility but pointed out that Christians also had been known to fight one another.

One Roman Catholic chaplain extended a casual invita- tion to a Polish-speaking soldier to attend a weekday Mass in the attic of a German farmhouse. When the chaplain arrived he was amazed to find the place jammed. Italians, French, Austrians, Belgians, Hollanders, Ukranians — nearly of them joined American soldiers and sang their native hymns with great enthusiasm. For some, it had been the first op- portunity for public worship in 6 years. Kingen, Disciples of Christ, with the nd Intro (Training Session) - Nino Bless - The Latin Marksman: The Hit Files Vol.

1 (CD) Aviation Battalion, supervised the construction of the first American-type chapel in Germany. Erected on Lechfeld Airfield from a variety of war ruin materials, it was dedicated on 9 December Chaplain Wolf Gunther See footnotes at end of chapter. He described it as "an unforgettable experience. Ragged, half-starved Jews, their spirits barely kindled, stood next to their more fortunate co-religionists from America.

Nadich, who later wrote about his experiences in his book, Eisenhower and the Jews, paved the way for the Office of Jewish Advisor — a position first occupied by Federal Judge Simon Rifkind. The Office coordinated the various efforts to aid Jewish displaced persons from October to December Besides the burial of the "liberated dead," they worked daily among the chaos, confusion and disorganization of the living, attempting to bring some semblance of order along with material and spiritual assistance.

Army rabbis worked day and night attempting to reunite loved ones. They established synagogues and organized soldiers to assist with orphans. One group of children from Buchenwald was evacuated immediately to Palestine through the work of Jewish chaplains.

By the spring often Jewish chaplains had been recruited and assigned specifically to solve the prob- lems of displaced persons. Actually, it simply meant that the work which was already in full swing now had official status and could be done on a full-time basis. They had hoped that by passing through the American zone they might move on to Palestine with little difficulty, but the camps in Austria could no longer contain them.

They were sent into Germany, by whatever rail transportation was available, accompanied by a chaplain who served as escort, interpreter and liaison officer. The experiences of those men are captured by one who recalled : How vivid are my recollections of these transports. A thousand people — men, pregnant women, and children, all crowded together in thirty box cars on a miserable, rainy day.

Twenty-four hours try- See footnotes at end of chapter. Whenever the train came to a stop the chaplain. Twenty-four hours into which were crowded innumerable experiences, even to leading a sunrise worship in a corner of a box-car and joining in the singing of groups of youngsters whose spirits could not be dampened. In my opinion, we must hold out a hand to the churches in Germany. Despite their existence, many chaplains began organizing German youth groups.

In Septemberthe Seventh Army gave official direction to chaplains to participate in such activities even though it was in clear violation of the non-fraternization policy. Army chaplains had been arrested and threatened with court marial for "collaborating with the enemy. However, it is believed that these refer to happenings during the early period of occupation. It seems probable that the same is true of the circumstances referred to in the clipping attached to your letter and that the recent modifica- tion of the non-fraternization policy would prevent the repetition of any such incident.

Chaplains of one division reported that in 3 months 30, had attended movies, 25, had participated in sports, and 8, attended Christmas parties — all sponsored by chaplains and aided by American troops. Teenage American soldiers, and eventually American dependents, joined with German youth in what was called a "training ground of Christian democrary in Europe.

Many German pastors had been drafted during the War and served as regular soldiers or medical assistants. Through the efforts of American chaplains, who provided literature and facilities, these clergy began to resume their original professions.

Seminars and seminaries were organized and a variety of welfare activities for hospitals, orphanages, kindergartens and youth-recreational groups became joint efforts of Army chaplains and national clergy. Its primary purpose was to restore freedom of religion and public worship by releasing former clergymen who had been in confinement, assisting in the repair of buildings, and supplying materials. It also became an agency to render assistance to Austrian civilians with housing, clothing, fuel, and medical supplies.

Chaplain Theodore See footnotes at end of chapter. He and his fellow chaplains performed countless committal services and answered the continual flow of mail from the next of kin of many of theAmericans buried in the 37 military cemeteries throughout Europe. They were moved by the great kindnesses shown by many local civilians in Holland, France and Belgium who visited the graves, adorned them with flowers and knelt to offer prayers.

For the most part, however, the task was the lonely vigil described by one chaplain: One of our principal duties is to go to the cemeteries three or four times a week tor prayers for American soldiers, whose bodies have been recovered from various battle grounds throughout Europe.

They have been brought from many places to rest among their own. The chaplains stand alone with the Commanding Officer of the cemetery, prayers and requiems are recited by the chaplains, and a final salute is given.

There are no mourners. Only God knows that America is giving her final tribute to her heroic dead. General George S. Patton joined his fallen comrades whose places were now marked by endless rows of white crosses and Stars of David. Chaplain Edwin R. Chaplain Leslie V. Barnes, Roman Catholic, observed : The spectacle of churches filled with soldiers on their knees in prayer, the Armies of men in uniform assisting by thousands at colorful field Masses, others assembled in great Cathedrals at services in Thanksgiving — all made profound impressions on people indoc- trinated with the gospel of hate.

He placed a portable altar in the front window with an open Bible and a large card inscribed with John 3 : 16 in German. The display attracted a great deal of attention from those who passed by and one individual remarked through an interpreter: "The Nazis told us that See footnotes at end of chapter.

When fellow Methodists Alfred M. Ellison and Clovis G. Childers attended a German church service in Bad Kissingen, Chaplain Ellison noted: "During the singing of the choir and the great music of Brahms and Bach and others, I felt the sting of being an enemy.

Chaplain Childers and I took our seats but the church members carefully avoided sitting near us until nearly all seats were taken. Comparable to a division with three brigades, they were made up of a variety of units previously involved in the invasion. Dressed in olive-drab uniforms, combat boots, striped helmet liners and yellow scarves, they made regular patrols in jeeps and armored cars painted yellow, blue and red.

In February the chap- lain section for the Constabulary was established with Charles P. Malumphy, Roman Catholic, as Staff Chaplain. With the danger of battle past, chaplains began to notice a slow change in the attitude of American troops.

Slater, General Conference Baptist. Immorality, drunkenness, and indifference are taking a heavy toll of our young men. Congress was releasing a third draft of a report that sharply criticized the policies of the U. Army of occupation in the European Theater. One Army chap- lain had given a statement to representatives of the committee complain- ing that the Army in Europe virtually condoned immorality and gave little stress to recreational and religious activities.

The committee, in turn, See footnotes at end of chapter. Their report indicated a need for stronger support of chaplains who were trying to change some of the bad examples set by American soldiers who, they believed, were giving discredit to the United States and democracy in general.

His letter hinted that even chaplains were not producing the kind of change he desired : Today, as never before, we are in need of some real honest to goodness chaplains in the army of occupation that are interested in the men enough to do some good.

I have no complaint to make against the chaplains we have in the service and as far as I know they are all men of excellent reputation and are doing all within their power to combat sin and the devil, but when you go to church and there are perhaps a dozen there, then I am wondering if some- thing is not drastically wrong somewhere.

Isn't there someway that all the chaplains can be awakened to the great need of these soldiers? Isn't there someway that I may help in a greater way? Murphy, Roman Catholic, answering for the Chief, said in part: Unfortunately, my young friend, you have had to witness a revo- lution in the social order and to endure the fears, uncertainty and disappointment so often attendant upon disaster.

You can be sure that we, along with other men of good will, are aware of the perils of the day. Our efforts may seem weak and our purposes sometimes uncertain, but confident of God's power we yet press forward in doing His will.

The resultant counseling and interpretation of regulations fell largely upon the chap- lains. Invariably, the delays caused by endless paper work as well as the restrictive quota system for foreign spouses to enter the United States resulted in soldiers being shipped home without their wives. The practical and emotional problems inherent in that situation consumed much of See footnotes at end of chapter.

By the last half ofsince the quota system of the War Brides Act was scheduled to ex- pire on 28 December, the number of marriages increased sharply. Carlson, Presbyterian, serving with the th European Command Replacement Depot in that year, was particularly impressed by the number of soldiers who returned to Europe with the intention of marrying German girls they had met on their previous tour.

Each shipment brings five to twenty men who convey this to the chaplain. It is believed that these men are sincere for they have had a time of separation to think it over. These men are to be regarded very highly, for they have come back, oftentimes at a great sacrifice, to right the wrong they committed. With their help he was able to move the classes to the local community school, establish a Bible Class for teacher-training, and in 5 months build the largest Ameri- can community Sunday School in Germany.

In 8 years approximately such structures were serving as the center of American religious activities in communities now equipped with commissaries, Intro (Training Session) - Nino Bless - The Latin Marksman: The Hit Files Vol. 1 (CD), post exchanges, administrative offices, and various other public service buildings. Chaplain Cloma A. Huffman, Christian Congregational, supervised the transformation of an old German artillery stable into a chapel at Heilbronn.

Three symbolic stones were mounted in the base of the altar. One, dating back to the 13th century with year-old engravings, came from the badly damaged Saint Kilian's Evangelical Church. The congregation donated the stone in appreciation for the contributions of American soldiers for the reconstruction of their church.

The third stone came from the Stutt- gart Jewish Synagogue which SS troops had demolished in ; the stone was among those for which members of the congregation had risked their lives — hiding and secretly burying fragments as precious symbols of their faith.

The three stones uniquely represented the cooperation of the major faiths as well as the new found friendship of the German people. Youngs, Bible Presbyterian, "enjoys a position much like that of the civilian pastor. Mad- dox, Southern Baptist, Staff Chaplain for the European Command from July to Julymaintained that there was no greater opportunity for ministry in the chaplaincy. Bymore than religious schools had been established and more than 2, people were helped an- nually through civic action programs.

When Chaplain Herman H. Heuer, Missouri Synod Lutheran, was reassigned to the Headquarters from one of the brigades in the Constabulary ina reporter for the unit newspaper wrote: "The only people glad to see him go were the APO clerks. One chaplain mused : It was my privilege recently to make a trip by jeep back through the Siegfried line sector where our 76th Infantry Division fought.

The beauty of God's handiwork al- ready obscured many of the horrible seats of war. But could I ever forget the trails in blood, the whine and roar of shells, the pain and torture of mangled bodies, the weary, miserable soldiers that those See footnotes at end of chapter. I could only thank God those days were over, and earnestly pray that mankind will tune their hearts to God's message of love and peace. Doyle, Methodist, with the th Station Hospital in Bayreuth, wrote in The continuing ministry of the chaplain will always be needed whether in peace or war.

We must have something that goes deeper than peace pacts and societies Phillips, Northern Baptist, as their temporary chairman. Their report on the meeting indicated MacArthur's commitment to a strong western religious influence in Japan.

He expressed conviction earnestly that there can be no hope for the world apart from the teachings of religion and the attitudes it fosters. The collapse of Japan has created a spiritual vacuum which Christian leadership should seek to fill with Christian values and sentiments.

Shintoism never struck deep roots in the daily life of the Japanese. In a sense it was no religion at all. It was a political device which the government used for its own purposes. It was artificially stimulated and maintained by deliberate design. That is why it has been abolished. What saved the situation in the Philip- See footnotes at end of chapter. His plan and hope was that through Christianity and Democracy the Japanese would be tamed. Early in he invited four prominent American Christian leaders to Japan — men who had influential positions in organizations representing the missionary activities of U.

Their assign- ment was to meet with Japanse Christian leaders, as well as Emperor Hirohito, and determine what the Church at large could do to help rebuild the country.

He referred to efforts in this program as a "demonstration of practical Christianity" which met the "heart-needs" of the Japanese by giving them the Scriptures "which reveal the knowl- edge of God and His love through Jesus Christ. We must have ten thou- sand Christian missionaries and a million Bibles to complete the occupa- tion of this land. The Eight Army Chaplain in late stressed to the chaplains' organization that foremost in their duties was the presentation of western civilization, American democracy, and the Christian faith to the people of Japan.

He told his chaplains he was convinced that such problems would become more difficult and serious with the passing of time; homesickness would become intensified, and grumbling and complaints would be heard every- where.

Although he felt that such difficulties were to be expected among occupation forces, he bolstered his chaplains by maintaining that during the War "the Command in the Pacific won to an unequalled degree the religious and spiritual interest of the troops.

There was six times more religious attendance than in any other theater. On 11 Januarywith the unanimous approval of See footnotes at end of chapter. Army Forces in the Pacific, under the subject title: "Repression of Prostitution. Occupation Forces in Japan is producing moral degradation that is exceptionally widespread and unusually ruinous to the character of American troops. Among them were disciplinary action against officers who advertise houses of prostitution; discontinuance of the practice of label- ing "acceptable" houses; emphasis to troops on the moral issues, not just the physical dangers of promiscuity; establishment of lecture and inter- view periods by chaplains for all in-coming troops; and, above all, the declaration of all houses of prostitution as being "off limits.

It thanked the chaplains' organization for its "excellent report" and promised action. Interestingly, the reply noted that a Memorandum from the Supreme Commander to the Imperial Japanese Government — dated 10 days after the chaplains' letter — had directed the abolition of licensed prostitution in the country.

With no reference to it whatsoever, he wrote in part I have. To protect the members of our occupying forces as far as possible from influences of evil, houses of prostitution and of ill repute have been placed off limits Every effort furthermore is being made to increase the opportunities for educational advance- ment and interesting and healthy recreation for soldiers when off duty.

It is not sufficient, however, that we take such diversionary measures in the solution of a problem which has confronted armies of occupation throughout military history. We must, in addition, exert strong and direct moral leadership over the members of the occupying forces, to the end that the underlying moral fiber remain undiminished in strength.

Such moral leadership devolves, in large See footnotes at end of chapter. They called on the President and the War Department to allow chaplains to have a greater voice in the choice of entertainment for those in occupation areas. By mid-reports to the Chief of Chaplains indicated that occupation personnel had con- tributed thousands of dollars for the repair and, in some cases, construc- tion of churches, seminaries and orphanages. Nippon Union Theological Seminary in Tokyo was one recipient of such help.

The situation is so much better than the people of Japan had dared to expect that hatred has largely dissipated. In his address to the group he asked them to publicize the special Christmas services at which the famous Toyohiko Kagawa was to speak and a choir, composed of both Japanese and Americans, was to present portions of Handel's "Messiah.

It was filled twice every day with Japanese who came to hear the Christian message. Kosaku Nao served as his interpreter and Mrs. Nao as his chapel organist. Reiss later discovered, to his sur- prise, that Nao was in fact a fellow Lutheran minister who had served on the mainland before the War.

They became close friends and worked together supporting new missionary efforts in the country. Over 2 decades later, the humble interpreter became the president of the subsequently- formed Japan Lutheran Church. Sampson, Roman Catholic, also stationed in Japan, commented on the people of the country by writing: "The Japa- nese are in their way a wonderful people. There were on occasion, of course, incidents which marred this rela- tionship.

Infor example, there was considerable correspondence between the OCCH, the Methodist Board of Missions and the Far East Command chaplains involving a single situation in which a Japanese Christian woman was ridiculed by some Americans for her religious devo- tion. The incident helped to emphasize the meaning of General Mac- Arthur's warning: "One misdeed may overshadow a thousand good deeds.

It was a spirit beautifully cap- tured in a letter received by Chaplain Peter E. About half a year since then, you preached the gospel of merciful Christ earnestly for us stray sheep ever since the defeat.

We firmly believe it is these deeds of yours that will be a corner stone, the ground work of good will between yours and our country. Yours in Christ Ashiya Baptest [sic] Church American religious endeavors among the Japanese continued for some time to be associated with U.

As late asfor See footnotes at end of chapter. In accepting, the noted former leader wrote: "It is very apparent that the Japanese associate Democracy with Christianty. It is therefore fitting that a nonsectarian Christian college be established to spread this philosophy. MacKenzie, Presbyterian U. During his leadership, as in the European occupation, the ministry of chaplains slowly changed from duty with specific units to local parish service within military com- munities.

Parker, Southern Baptist. Chapel Centers, constructed to pro- vide facilities for all ages in various programs, were credited for vast increases in attendance at chapel activities. A report to the Secretary of the Army in indicated the Center at the General Headquarters in Tokyo had increased activities from 20 to per month during the previ- ous 2 years.

Attendance rates during the same period shot up from 1, to over 1 5, Naylor, Presbyterian U. The chapel became the activity center of the housing area. Turner, Southern Baptist, serving at the Grant Heights Chapel in Tokyo, had the distinc- tion of conducting both the largest Sunday school and largest allied adult worship services in the world.

His average Sunday service attendance was nearly Shortly after the arrival of U. Bailey, Methodist, Intro (Training Session) - Nino Bless - The Latin Marksman: The Hit Files Vol. 1 (CD) the first Christian See footnotes at end of chapter. A weekly schedule, including daily devotions and Sunday services, was beamed throughout Japan and as far away as China and Okinawa. When authority was granted for the appointment of Philippine soldiers as officers in the Army of the United States, approval was given also, though contrary to a previous provision, for the appointment of not more than ten Philippine chaplains.

Taguined, Roman Catholic — were appointed with the restriction that their ministry would be conducted only among the Scouts. Among them was a 25,square-mile peninsula known as Korea; like Germany, it lay divided by the occupation forces of the Soviet Union and the United States. In the American sector, the U. A senior chaplain at the time reported : I find here a unique opportunity for far-reaching service.

A new civilization is being built. The American Military Governor and his key officers are men of serious purpose, high vision and exceptional ability.

They seem to have the confidence and support of the Korean people. They are steadily implementing the program of government throughout the southern half of Korea, replacing the machinery of Japanese despotism with democratic processes, and preparing the Korean people for self-government and independence.

My work. Jaeger, American Baptist. In late he was succeeded briefly by George F. See footnotes at end of chapter. Schroeder, United Lutheran. InDr. Hyungki Lew, a leading educator and author of the country, warned a world mission conference in Chautaugua, New York, that Korea was a land in which Christianity and Communism were "in a life and death fight. Despite those apprehensions, the exodus took place at the end of June What first came to a head on the battlefields of Korea was a growing antagonism between two political systems, an antagonism that had started decades earlier.

Soviet Communism versus Western democracy was always far more than an argument between politicians or a simple disagreement on the more efficient form of government.

The deep chasm between them was formed by a variance in their very philosophies of man. It was not surprising, therefore, that this considered threat to democracy caused concern among many Americans over the defense and continuance of their old ideals.

To a certain extent, that concern was instrumental in developing new trends in the United States Army Chaplaincy. Wadsworth, NY. Payton, "Toward a Lasting Peace," Ibid. Bowles to editor, Ibid. Sinderson to editor, The Chaplain, Novemberp. Eisenhower to Dr. Hazen, The Chaplain, Aprilcover. Lee to Harry S. Truman, The Chaplain, Decembercover. Truman to Edwin F. Lee, Ibid. Gigliotti, "Christian, Soldier, Friend," Ibid. Si Ibid. M Ibid. Elson to Rodger R. Paul, MN,p. Duffy to Luther D. Miller, 12 August ; Harold O.

Prudell to Edwin J. Duffy, 13 September ; James C. Bean to Harold O. Prudell, 9 OctoberRGfile Schoech to Rodger R. Hale, "U. Schroeder to Rodger R. Murphy to Charles I. Mad- dox, ed. Army, Europe: Historical Division,p.

Nuwer and Mert M. Chaplaincy," p. Murphy to Glenn W. Morrow, 30 AugustIbid. Hopkins to Luther D. Miller, 6 August ; Luther D. Miller to Garland E. Hopkins and Roy H. Parker, 20 August ; Roy H. Parker to Luther D. Miller and William C. Shure and Garland E. Hopkins, 6 September ; Garland E. Miller, 24 SeptemberRGfile Atkinson to Col. The camp is owned by Mr. Macleod who lives just up the dirt road. There are five houses, but only two are occupied. There is the Salas family with eight people living in the house.

The camp is licensed, apparently clean, and fairly-well furnished. Salas and his son-in-law were working in the fields, so we spoke with the ladies. We arranged to pick them up on Monday, July 7, to purchase food stamps in Charlotte. This evening we met with several doctors and nurses of the Lansing community in Dr. The meeting was the first of a project to engage doctors in servicing migrants in their camps. Basically the set-up is still informal and runs as follows: the social workers — including me — will have two major functions to perform.

One is to find out the health records of families in the camps. We will make little index cards recording sicknesses, injections, operations, visits to the doctor, complaints, etc. We will, secondly, relay this information to doctors, who will team up with the social workers and nurses and visit the camps when able. At present, it appears that the doctors have not committed themselves whole-heartedly, and it will take some effort on our part to recruit them into visiting the camps.

The few nurses that attended the meetings appeared very enthusiastic. In the future, it would be highly advisable to engage as many people of the medical profession to make camp visits. To paraphrase Mr. These migrants need to feel welcome in the community and a good place to start is with the well respected medical profession.

I went to the camp to visit and to primarily teach the men how to play horseshoes. I also took with me some clothing that neighbors had given me. I found that a good tactic is to tell the men that there are some things in the car for the ladies and themselves — to go see if they could use any of the clothing. The people — about 10 of them — went to the car and, without quarreling, went through the clothing and divided it all up. This used clothing can at least serve as work clothes.

But I noticed that the women have few dresses. A recommended project for large camps would be sewing lessons on simple tent-type dresses. The men threw horseshoes for a few hours and loved the game.

One guy even asked me to pick him up another game for his kids. During the game, I spoke mostly with Luis Torres and a couple new arrivals — Mr. Reyes and Mr. They would work occasionally, but they gave me the impression that since there were few jobs, it seemed fruitless to seek work in Texas.

Thus, they anxiously awaited their trip to Michigan. At times, the migrant takes on the character of being a pure American or U. This is legally correct because most migrants were born in the U.

In this U. This I noted, in particular, when we discussed discrimination. At other times, especially when an Anglo is present, the migrant tends to put on a pure Mexican front. The language reverts to his best Spanish with little use of "pocho" or "Spanglish," as Anglos refer to the language. He may pretend not to understand English. But oftentimes there is imbalance and dissonance, or conflict, in the role the migrant has to take on.

To solve such conflict he relies on silence. Mannerisms are shy and humble. The "outsider" — whether Anglo or Mexican — has to clarify by his actions which attitude the migrant will presume.

Once the "outsiders" appearance or image is understood, then the migrant assumes his particular role and acts accordingly. This observation leads me to suspect that, in general, relations with the Spanish-speaking migrants, the "outsider" must make it clear what his function is and whether he will be part of the Mexican character or part of the Anglo character.

Whichever front predominates, will influence the "outsider-migrant" relationship. In the morning I took the Tafollas to Charlotte to purchase food stamps. Tafolla is 32 and his wife is They met in a migrant camp in the state of Washington and now have seven children, all under 11 years of age.

Both Tafollas have been migrants all their lives; they have little education, but want their children to complete at least high school. In they started coming to Michigan at the invitation of Frank Gonzalez. This year, they purchased a Dodge pick-up and are concerned about fulfilling the payments on the truck. At noon I drove to Lansing and picked up Suzie. We went on to Potterville to pick up Mrs. Salas and her step-daughter, Mrs. They went with us to Charlotte to get food stamps.

This extended family is very alert and the children are especially sharp. One of the Salas daughters — Francis — is an honor student and was passed on to the seventh grade in Potterville.

The other kids do pretty well, too. One notable feature is that they like to speak English and have the best vocabulary so-far encountered. Ana Longoria and her husband — both 20 with four children — would like to stay here and get a good job. This is one family with excellent potential. After we purchased the food stamps, I noticed that one of the little Salas girls — Rosi — who went with us was limping. I found out that she stepped on a nail a week ago, but had received a tetanus shot.

We immediately went to the clinic in Charlotte. We soon learned that the only time shots could be authorized were on Thursdays. So we went across the street to the emergency service of the hospital. We were treated nicely, but asked to drive 10 miles south to Bellevue to get the tetanus shot from — get this — Dr.

There are still no specific provisions for the inoculation of migrant or seasonal workers, according to an Eaton Health Department spokesperson. The Salas and Longoria families seemed pleased and especially happy about the stamps. We promised a visit the next day to do the small paper-work for the emergency treatment.

We also got some information on free vaccinations from the clinic and will make an effort to have the kids immunized. One interesting story was told to us by Ana.

She related that her step-mother came from a very poor family that still lives in a hut, with a camp fire for a stove, near the Mexican border on the U. Get this, Ana said that these relatives were so poor that even their father sent money to help. If everyone expressed such willingness to contribute to the feeding and care of others, just think of how much better-off we would all be. But, such is life and rare is the moment when the spirit of thanksgiving hits us with such generosity as witnessed among the poor themselves.

Remittances today are considered the second largest money-generating industry in Mexico, surpassing tourism but lagging behind petroleum. Theirs in not a problem of "culture boundaries.

There are too many cases that prove that Mexican-American migrants are not "culturally bound. Domingo and his sister, Guadalupe Tafolla, — being the oldest — worked with their mother in fields since there were no other jobs available to raise the other children.

Domingo and his sister proudly show the pictures of a brother in the Navy with a high school education, a sister who completed college and now teaches, and a younger brother who is in high school and was recently voted most popular student among his peers.

Theirs is just one case, but there are others. As it is, they have assumed a responsibility to care, in any way possible, for the others of the family and feel honored by the performance of their family.

Suzie and I spent the morning talking with this wonderful family of the Tafollas and Domingo. We learned that Mr. Tafolla is very concerned about making payments of a new Dodge pick-up.

The reason they bought a new truck was for the warranty that came with the truck. This concern has made Mr. Tafolla consider staying in Michigan. He is interested in steady employment that pays well. However, he gives the impression of feeling that there is no other job for him.

His biggest fright seems to be his illiteracy. He can barely write his name. The National Adult Literacy Survey reported that, with the exception of persons without a high school diploma or GED, annual earnings rose continuously across the literacy levels. For migrant farmworkers, however, things still look dismal.

Some are paid hourly, others earn a piece rate where a set amount is paid for each filled container. In one case, Mr. Tafolla told me of begging for food amongst Blacks in the state of Washington. He said they were very generous and gave them a great boost of attention since they were working. Some of this pride even works against him to an extent. I know that Mr. Salas would not go for food stamps without the minimal payment involved.

Little could be given to him and others for free. But, the Mexican-American migrant also seeks self-respect that needs to be recognized and honored. They make it clear that they work for their earnings. The simple and used clothing that is given to them is taken as "work clothes" — at least they say it is. And when something is received by them, the donor receives, in turn, a warm thank you and welcome. An aspect of this respect that they deserve was indicated to us today when Suzie and I visited with Mrs.

Guerrero and her daughter-in-law. Last night the registrar came out to see what was wrong and her visit provided the fulfillment of her original promise.

Today, Mrs. Guerrero explained that, without the advance warning, she had no time to clean her kids and give them an adequate meal before they left. State and National Literacy Coalitions continue to improve the nation's adult literacy rates "Adult Literacy Rate"' is the percentage of the population over age 15 who can read and write, with understanding of a short, simple statement through an assortment of efforts.

Adult education programs are often available, but barriers to attending these include time, transportation, and perceived value. For money. The place must be a seed-bed of poverty, yet is the home of many migrants. What little work exists, but pays little. The reason for such low pay is an abundance of labor. The forces of supply and demand interact here with apparently little attention given to the minimum wage standards. The unemployed seem to be of various kinds. There are those too old or in poor health, or in poor physical shape.

There are also those who admittedly refuse to work for such low wages and search for income elsewhere.

This later category provides much of the U. The Mexican-American migrant is a person alert and willing to seek work elsewhere. He is informed of the outside job opportunities via various channels. One way is through family and friends, who have already made similar trips. Another channel of information is the crew leader from the fields of employment. Men like Frank Pancho Gonzalez travel to South Texas around March to tell people of the opportunities for working in the Michigan fields.

From the 's to the early 21st Century, the "official" Mexican population of the U. Undocumented workers, now estimated around million, are partially included in this latest count. Most Mexicans regard job opportunities north of the border as a legitimate part of their geographical heritage, according to author Hank Heifetz. Attempts since the early 's to control popular entrance sites have driven the undocumented to much less populated -- and much more dangerous -- crossings points.

There, someone with expert knowledge of the area is needed as a guide. These are often coyotes or polleroswho lead groups across the terrain, ideally avoiding the mounting dangers of la migra, strategically situated military personnel, Mexican or American predators, self-appointed vigilantes, and the lack of water and humanitarian assistance.

These guides quickly abandon their "clients" in unfamiliar territory if there are any problems. Since new border policies were implemented and strongly enforced in the 's, more than 3, migrants have reportedly lost their lives along the U. So far this year, in Arizona alone, there have been confirmed border deaths.

That figure is based on information from Mexico's secretary of foreign relations and Arizona county medical examiners. Frank is also in a position to lend money to families wishing to work the fields. Over the last five years Frank has managed to become familiar with several families of the Brownsville area. These families come to the Eaton Rapid camp and he finds them work on small farms that sell cucumbers to Heifetz. If a family has borrowed money, then their immediate obligation is to repay Frank with their first wages.

The people tell me that Frank does not charge interest and watches their needs with a family-type interest. They know where Frank lives, have his address, and generally call him when in need. There is another source of job information that is not clear to me in its operation. This information comes from a man who lives in Brownsville area named B. Garcia; there may be others with the same function for all I know. Garcia passes out cards with "guaranteed" information on jobs.

He works as a liaison between the farmers, who need labor, and the labor market participants, who need work. The following families came in last night and were taken to buy food stamps today:. Reyes 40 widow with seven dependents 2. Guadalupe Reyes 21 son of Carmen — with two dependents 3. Pedro Alavarez Paredes 61 friend of Reyes with nine dependents 4.

Andres Tafolla 26 — with eight dependents. It is an understatement to say that the Mexican-American migrants are generally "extended family working groups. Perhaps more accurate terminology is "overextended family working unit. They continue a long tradition of people from Mexico harvesting crops in the southwestern United States, including those who came here through the historic "Braceros" program in the early 's to bolster the nation's labor force as "soldiers of the fields and railroads" during World War II.

Much farm work is seasonal and workers do not earn money in inclement weather, while waiting for crops to ripen, when they are sick, or when traveling between jobs. There is only a Migrant workers and their families experience poorer physical health than the general population, and are less likely to seek and receive adequate healthcare.

While little nationwide data exists, available information shows elevated infant mortality rates and shorter life expectancies for them than the national average.

In Michigan, studies have also noted increased rates of diabetes, mental and dental health problems, and obesity. Some of these problems, JSRI researchers note, are directly attributable to dietary changes, lifestyle choices, and assimilation. How do these people get around? Surprisingly to first and last visitors, some of these families have relatively new cars — station wagons and pick-ups.

There seems to be a practical-pride in buying such autos. I say "practical" because the family needs a good car — a car they know first-hand — to travel with. They also seek the warranty with the cars they purchase. The families also get pride from such cars. The first thing a young member wants to do is buy a car. He exhibits the proud ability to be on his own with such a purchase.

It is a mistake to consider such purchases for "status seeking. No "status seeker would discuss such problems openly.

An occasional family owns a 1-ton truck. Pedro Paredes owns a truck and the Guererros just started payments on one. The trucks are found with the large families and carry household equipment.

These big trucks are also hired out to farmers for carrying cargo when the opportunity permits. The Guerreros carried citrus on their last stay in Florida. Last night, one of the Tafolla girls cut her foot and received about 20 stitches from the emergency unit of the Eaton Rapids Community Hospital. Frank Gonzalez and his wife were in the camp at the time and took the girl and her family to the hospital. I checked with the welfare office in Charlotte and found out that Mrs.

Gonzalez had already been there to see about paying the doctor bills. Understandably, of course, exploitation is a matter of perspective since at least two parties are involved. But, by exploitation of the migrant, I mean the unethical hiring and use of migrants by farm owners for the purposes of profiteering.

You take somebody desperately in need of money and food and you tell them "take whatever I give you or get nothing at all. Rafael Mendoza related the account of such exploitation in Minnesota.

At the end of the day the owner put on a burst of anger and shouted at the migrants saying they did a lousy job. He even threatened not to pay at all. Not only is exploitation exhibited, but deceit as well. The Mexican-American migrant, however, is basically passive. He is not one to lose his temper to outsiders. Any flare-ups occur within the extended family. They are not a rebellious lot and certainly would not be the type to make waves in a sea of "tranquility.

This day started out uneventful, but ended up with some interesting developments. A little later, Mr. Patino stopped in for a visit and we talked with some of the housewives. We learned that the men who are working have been commuting as far as 50 miles to hoe weeds.

Their jobs are arranged by Frank Gonzalez. Locally there is little work since the cucumbers still have another week or so to mature. My guess is that they went to Indiana to pick tomatoes as they had mentioned to me earlier. Carmen Reyes also left the camp with an elder son, but for a different reason. She was worried about her youngest kids left at home in Texas with a grown daughter. I understood from the Paredes — the Padrinos of the Reyes family — that Mrs. Reyes called and got no answer. So she took off and drove home to Texas to see if everything was alright.

Her oldest son, Junior, said she would come back in time to pick cucumbers. I think that the food stamps we got them helped in this sudden move since they were low on cash.

This decision on Mrs. I drove to the McCleod camp near Potterville to visit with the Salas and Longoria families — primarily to check on the Longoria baby to see about some open sores on her back and legs. I volunteered to take the mother and baby to Charlotte to get medical treatment. The offer was accepted and the trip also turned out to be one for groceries. The family wanted to use their food stamps for the first time. Maria married five years earlier to a former Texas Mexican-American, who had settled on his own in Michigan.

The Cervantes live in Lansing near the St. Lawrence Hospital and have two children ages four and three. Two more recent children died of pneumonia. The Cervantes have a load of problems.

Cervantes has been unable to hold jobs and accumulated debts galore. Cervantes worked for General Motors, bought a new car, and within a few hours Mr. Cervantes destroyed it. To make things worse, he was not insured she was insured and told her husband not to drive the car, but…! They claimed bankruptcy and started from scratch again. Not long ago, Mr. Cervantes was found with marijuana and faces a court decision on Monday, July At present, the family is on welfare.

Cervantes is young and intelligent even though she did not finish high school. What a way to live. Certainly not a prime example for Mexican-American migrants to follow. As it turned out, little Gloria Longoria had infected mosquito bites. The visit to Dr. It was a nice Sunday and the camp was active with talk and sports. Some of the younger kids went swimming at a public lake 10 miles south of the camp. I joined the men in a few games of horseshoes while Nancy and my wife made a visit to each household.

Their objective was to compile an index card of ailments for each person interviewed. The people were very open with their problems. Major problems appeared, such as Mr. Other problems needing medical attention were poor teeth, pulled muscles, and skin rashes. It was also found that some women had taken birth control pills and wanted more. Nancy and I made a list of priorities to follow through on: 1 find out when the Charlotte Health Department does immunizations August 5, 6; a.

All in all, the day was very rewarding. The people appeared very pleased with our visit and willing to cooperate on things that ail them. We were treated nicely by Beverly Cuthbert, who interviewed Anna.

Welfare health care will be extended to the Longorias for at least on month. All we have to do from now on is ask permission to receive treatment from the doctor or fill out medical prescriptions. While with Beverly, I got permission to take Rosa Salas to the doctor to check on her infected heel.

The poor little girl has not walked well in 10 days. This night Ubaldo Patino and I met with two members of the St. Gehrholz and Dorr L. We explained to them the nature of our work and interested them in helping us. Twelve dollars was donated to use in any way necessary for the migrant workers.

There is also a used clothing store open for the people whenever in need. The two men were generous and helpful. Present were the Guerrero women and year-old Mrs. Reyes and her madrina, Mrs. I think the average age for all women is Many have had a child by their sixteenth birthday. Anna Longoria is barely 20 and her husband will be 20 in August.

We found out that things were running smoothly as could be in the camp. There was a new family that arrived the night before, but they were out at the time.

Nancy Bolt called and informed me that Dr. Wiegenstein of St. Lawrence Hospital agreed to visit during the coming Sunday. Nancy and I will prepare one of the cottages as a clinic.

Nancy is a real go-getter and a pleasure to work with. With just one visit to the camp she has stimulated an interest in helping the migrants and has even recruited some of her nursing friends to help. Sunday will be a long remembered day in the camp.

After short discussion with some of the ladies, I took off for Charlotte to visit the Public Health Office. I met with Dr. Brown, who is the director there, and a nurse in charge of the Eaton Rapids vicinity. He kept looking at my list of things, which nurse Nancy Bolt prepared for me, and said he was sorry, but they had no such things.

The only offer was for vaccination shots at the clinic two days a month with the next clinic was set for Aug. The nurse was of even less help. She is getting along in years and apparently very sedentary. She noted, however, that she did visit the camp once last year, but has not made any effort to return. The whole set-up in the Charlotte Health Department is as shaggy as their building.

They definitely need an overhaul of fresh blood in their mix. At camp I joined in a game of horseshoes. The sport has caught on so fast that all the men are now qualified experts save one — me.

But, at least a lot of conversation takes place while we have a good time. Both families worked in sugar beets in Minnesota. My intention was to have a short visit and to get back to Lansing to take my wife to a movie. I shared some interesting conversation with Guerrero, Gonzalez, Torres, and Sepulveda. I found out that Mr. He still sends his mother checks now and then. Gonzalez was a true Mexican cowboy. He drove cattle, roped, branded, etc. He is a very pleasant and shy guy who believes in hard work.

As a matter of fact, all the men present felt strongly about continuing work, but admittedly were concerned about the future and the onslaught of mechanization. Nurse Nancy Bolt and a nurse friend assisted the doctor in treating the patients. We had a good turnout with nearly everyone showing up with one ailment or another.

Most cases were minor, but a couple things did turn up. One boy had a bad case of bronchitis from working in the rain. Some mosquito bites were infected. A lady had high blood pressure and was given a prescription. Two ladies accepted Pap cancer tests and were given prescriptions for birth control pills.

The doctor was there for two hours and left just a little after 9 p. My wife and I left shortly after him. Quite a world of contrasts — from a marvelous space achievement to a poverty stricken area. What I took was penicillin in tablet form and some cough syrup. Apparently, if not taken care of properly, bronchitis can lead to pneumonia. They were the Pedro Ozunas with six in all and the Juan Sepulvedas with eight.

Patino later said he was interested in getting him a job visiting camps instead of working the fields. But, since they worked very little and paid bills on the cars and other items, they were running short of food. Patino advised me to use the vouchers for the purchase of enough food to last the week. On this day, I took Mrs. Despite the passage of nearly 40 years, there remains only one chain grocery store Felpausch in Eaton Rapids.

There are a couple of smaller grocers, including those at the four local gas stations, that cater to travelers or small-purchase shoppers. Few, other than the grocery store, accept Food Stamps as payment. Included were Mrs. Gonzalez, Miss Ramona Sanchez, and Mr.

Luis Torres. While at the store I filled out an application form for Luis to work with Oldsmobile. In the afternoon I took two more new families to purchase food stamps. Included were Rodolfo Garcia who has eight dependents and Manuel Serrano, who had Mott and Mrs. Kade, both of the Charlotte social services offices, accompanied me on a visit to the Eaton Rapids camp. Both ladies have worked in welfare for around 10 years each, yet neither had ever visited a migrant camp.

So the reason for taking them was primarily to show them the conditions migrants lived in. Additionally, it was my desire to develop rapport with the ladies and to let them know some of the families better.

The trip was worthwhile. Each family we visited qualified with little effort. They have hardly worked at all and they were very short on funds. We visited nearly 10 houses and reminded five families they could return in the following week. They exhibit extreme honesty and even simplicity. I have in mind a particular example.

If they wanted to, they could easily falsify their monthly earnings in order to receive a larger bonus from the food stamps. The people at Social Services were willing to take their word for it about how much was actually earned. In every case, the families honestly reported how much they earned.

All families have, without hesitation, showed me their receipts. First we stopped by the Oldsmobile employment office to turn in some applications. Four of the applications came from my camp.

We set an appointment for personal interviews on the following Monday. Today there are only four licensed migrant housing sites in Ingham County; Eaton County only has one.

Global health observatory: Road safety. Mental health atlas. Assessment and management of conditions specifically related to stress. Comprehensive mental health action plan — Global and regional estimates of violence against women: Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. The top 10 causes of death.

Psychological first aid: Guide for field workers. Civil war, civil peace. Correspondence regarding this article should be directed to Rolf C. HAP set its mission to bring evidence-based trauma therapy to communities that were underserved or that had suffered disasters.

HAP currently reaches about 2, trainees annually. Similar HAP training programs in developing countries reach about clinicians annually and aim to build local communities of practice that are sustainable. HAP has responded to disasters worldwide, with both training and treatment, but increasingly directs most disaster aid to the United States as new sister organizations appear and respond to disasters in other regions of the world.

In recent years, HAP has aimed to promote emergence of its Trauma Recovery Network TRN —local voluntary teams of clinicians who stress preparedness as a key component of disaster response. Sinceseveral similar humanitarian response organizations, using EMDR therapy, have developed in many countries of Europe, Latin America, and more recently in Asia.

Many of these sister organizations can trace their roots to the involvement of their founders in earlier international humanitarian projects of HAP. Hopefully, this retrospective look, together with reports in this volume from other EMDR-based humanitarian organizations, will be of some use to a wider audience now paying closer attention to the efficacy and effectiveness of EMDR in postdisaster environments and in enlarging the mental health resources of developing countries.

They cross a line into humanitarian action, as understood in this article, when they offer their services pro bono to an individual or community that is in great need for basic human resources but lacks the means to provide such resources for itself. The bombing of the Federal Building in Oklahoma City in was a local disaster that emerged suddenly and constituted a humanitarian crisis. Although that disaster was localized and evoked a swift response, it shared with all disasters the fact that it profoundly disrupted the normal means by which a community commonly managed to cope and to thrive.

As the leaders and volunteers of HAP were to experience in the following years, not all disasters, with their attendant humanitarian needs, arise suddenly or recede rapidly. These conditions may be found in developing countries but also in large subsections of affluent societies, such as the United States. As we will show, HAP ultimately directed its humanitarian efforts at all of these types of human disaster. EMDR therapy follows a protocol and has given rise to specialized protocols that support early interventions for psychological trauma patients Luber,; Shapiro, These formulations made EMDR therapy relatively easy to teach to experienced clinicians and also supported the first generation of researchers to study it.

Randomized controlled trials would accumulate in later years, confirming effectiveness and efficacy of EMDR therapy for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. But there were few systematic studies at that time. Clinical reports were favorable to EMDR therapy as a trauma therapy, however, as was personal clinical experience among HAP volunteers. In the first instance, HAP volunteers went to the scene of a disaster to offer training in EMDR therapy to local clinicians who would remain to deliver care during the recovery period of months or years that follows major disasters.

On the other track, the same volunteers provided direct clinical services to individuals and groups experiencing acute stress or posttraumatic stress disorder. Frequently, direct treatment was a briefly shared activity with the newly trained local clinicians to help them consolidate their new skills. The studies that have been done include the largely unfunded efforts of volunteers who contributed their time and skill here as well.

Incidence and impact of psychological trauma after highly publicized disasters were often matched or exceeded by levels of untreated trauma in various disadvantaged but less publicized settings and communities. This led HAP volunteers to begin training clinicians at public and nonprofit clinics in the United States that serve populations with low incomes and high levels of untreated trauma.

Closely related was ongoing training of clinicians in the U. Department of Defense and Veterans Affairs, who were struggling to cope with massive incidence of combat-related trauma among military personnel and veterans. Transferring clinical skills to developing countries was not as simple as offering continuing education workshops in EMDR to clinicians working in U.

World Health Organization WHO and development economists were increasingly aware of the association between mental health and rapid socioeconomic development Carriere, ; WHO, Trauma and trauma-related mental health diagnoses were high on the WHO list of problems needing solutions.

EMDR is a highly promising treatment choice, given its relatively low cost and rapid efficacy. But mental health service systems were underdeveloped, if not missing, in these countries. HAP projects would be short-lived unless they were sustained and integrated with larger indigenous efforts to build mental health service systems, as HAP has been striving to do in the West Bank, Kenya, and Ethiopia.

In the Beginning. The bombing of the federal building in Oklahoma City in led to the first large-scale mobilization of EMDR clinicians to assist a community in crisis and, thereafter, to the founding of EMDR HAP as a nonprofit charity that continues to this day.

For 6 months following the bombing, HAP volunteers rotated into the city to treat the survivors and train clinicians. They also trained clinicians, giving them the tools they needed to continue treatment.

Many of the volunteers were facilitators or trainers for the EMDR Institute, and HAP began to train new facilitators and trainers to expand its capabilities. Beyond disaster response, HAP domestic training events in basic EMDR therapy were growing in number during this period, from 7 or 8 events in to about 40 events inwith an average of 20—25 participants in each participants must complete two workshops to finish basic EMDR training. Training for Department of Veterans Affairs VA and military clinicians was a part of this total, with most of those events conducted by HAP volunteers who were themselves military or VA clinicians.

Although research was not a part of HAP projects, the publication of research studies supporting EMDR therapy during this period appears to have increased interest among nonprofit and public agencies to get clinical training in EMDR therapy.

Another factor, frequently noticed in the HAP office bywas the influence of clinicians newly promoted to the role of clinical director at their agency, who had been trained by HAP previously and now wanted their clinicians to have the same skill set. Annual numbers of participants have grown steadily to more than 2, A secondary benefit of domestic training has been the preparation of new facilitators and trainers to meet the demand for training.

Many of these continue to function as HAP volunteers as well. Domestic disaster response has continued to be a major focus of HAP activity. Following the massive response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, however, HAP began to modify its approach to emergency response.

Each of these events, however, had compelled HAP to create a structure of coordination and procedure from scratch. Although earlier lessons had not been forgotten at the HAP office, they were unknown to each new crop of volunteers. Also, the cost of sending volunteers and supporting them in the field often far from their homes was prohibitive.

Local TRN volunteers would be ready to respond when emergency need arose, and TRN members in other communities would be available to join them if needed. Meanwhile, all TRN members would have a shared set of understandings about their role and their relationships with other emergency responders. Bythere were 20 U. TRN chapters and two in Canada. The existing chapters have been highly motivated and responsive to emergencies in many locations where HAP previously would have been unable to mount a rapid response of adequate scope.

International engagement by HAP has also been evolving over the past 8 years. Throughout this period, strong national and regional EMDR associations have existed or been developing in Europe, Latin America, and Asia, most of them with a HAP-like component, which was ready to take on challenges on its own turf and to assist neighbors as needed. Where in the past, U. HAP might organize a disaster response and welcome volunteers from many other countries to participate, it increasingly made sense for nearby EMDR groups to respond and request help from other nations as needed.

One major, but brief, collaboration of this sort was among the HAP organizations from the United States, France, and Belgium in to provide training in French to Haitian psychologists after the massive earthquake in Haiti. There remained several countries where HAP was asked by local leaders to sustain a training role over a long time frame.

First, in times of disaster, there may be an intensification of trauma coupled with a general disruption of normal pathways to treatment. For that reason, HAP has dedicated itself to responding to disasters. Such communities may have low-cost clinics available, but the clinicians lack training in an evidence-based trauma therapy such as EMDR. For the same reasons, HAP has undertaken international projects, unrelated to a recent disaster, that aim at building the capacity of local caregivers to address widespread untreated trauma.

In the absence of highly developed systems of mental health delivery, such capacity building efforts cannot be done rapidly. Rather than spread its efforts too thinly, HAP has become selective about the countries where it will seek to build capacity and has made efforts to work in those locations that aim to expand their service capacity over a long term.

Basic EMDR training is offered repeatedly, but advanced specialty topics in EMDR therapy are also provided, and when possible, efforts are made to prepare local clinicians as trainers, facilitators, and consultants. Management of Programs and Services Administration. EMDR HAP is overseen by a board of directors which sets basic policy and appoints an executive director to manage programs and services.

Donations to HAP, a public charity under the U. Internal Revenue Code Section c 3are tax deductible. HAP pursues an active program of grant seeking as well as soliciting individual contributions. Volunteer Training. In domestic training projects, participants are expected to secure qualified consultation privately.

Candidates for these roles are offered mentors for facilitators or special workshops for trainers before shadowing experienced volunteer educators at multiple training events and being observed in their initial practice as EMDR educators. All chapters are committed to ongoing training in specialty protocols related to early treatment of trauma and special populations as well as in psychological first aid as supported by Red Cross and other emergency response organizations.

Project Logistics Project Selection. Enrollment in domestic training events, in EMDR Part I or Part II, is limited to licensed clinicians engaged in full-time 30 or more hours per week clinical work at a public or nonprofit agency.

Typically, an agency sponsors the training and provides a venue capable of accommodating at least 25 participants who meet the criteria, although they may work at different agencies.

International projects are selected and defined in a more complex and ad hoc manner. If translation of the instruction is required, HAP looks for evidence that translators are available and skilled in translating in this technical domain.

Because this is often difficult to ensure and because translation slows down the pace and accuracy of training, HAP today favors projects that can be conducted in the shared language of the training team and the participants without need of translators. In most cases, international training projects are paid for by grants, donations, or other third-party payers rather than by the participants.

Early in its history, U. HAP was a provider or co-provider of most international disaster relief projects involving EMDR and aimed to support EMDR clinicians from other countries to develop similar humanitarian organizations. In capacity building work, as in the West Bank, Kenya, and Ethiopia, project selection is jointly designed with local partners to support their progress in expanding knowledge of EMDR and integrating EMDR therapy into their national health-care systems.

Focus is typically on training and consultation, developing indigenous consultants and educators, and bringing in specialty training, always constrained by availability of third-party funding. Supporting Volunteers in the Field. For domestic training projects, volunteers are selected with an eye to their proximity to the site, to reduce travel costs, and consideration of the match between areas of special expertise among the training team and any special focus of the sponsoring clinic e.

Volunteer specialties are also considered in staffing international projects. By definition, HAP volunteers serve without pay in the projects they agree to join. They typically make their own travel arrangements and are directed to lodging that is convenient to the project site. HAP reimburses travel, food, and lodging costs. Volunteers typically work in teams and organize their activity in the field to take account of any special circumstances in their work.

In TRN projects, each chapter endorses shared standards listed on the HAP website, but beyond that, each chapter is autonomous and designates its own coordinators of the voluntary work.

When the team leaves, they aim to leave behind local clinicians who can continue to provide effective treatment for trauma. For this reason, EMDR training is often a component and by-product of disaster response projects. In other cases, and where a domestic TRN chapter is responding in its own community, there are six principal functions discussed later that constitute the services expected of TRNs. Conditions at a disaster site require flexibility.

Group treatment has been used in post-tsunami projects in India Farrell et al. Group psychoeducation followed by brief individual counseling was provided to first responders and additional local caregivers in Louisiana after Katrina. The military and United Nation use their clinical staffs to support the mission of their field personnel. In the case of the U. However, there are tens of thousands of clinicians in these services.

EMDR is now recognized officially by the VA as a recommended therapy, but decisions to train clinicians and to use EMDR are made by local commanders and administrators. Local military commanders shift every few years, and support for EMDR may decline or increase based on who is in charge. Russell has analyzed traditions of resistance to treating combat trauma. It is the perception of HAP that support for EMDR from higher echelons has grown slowly, and in some services, there is now support for developing their own EMDR trainers with expertise in combat trauma.

Capacity Building as a Goal. Both at home and internationally, HAP has developed improved approaches that focus on building clinical capacity during ordinary times instead of trying to revise skill sets in the midst of emergencies. The next step in domestic projects was the emergence of local TRNs, discussed later.

As for countries where there are major disasters, these occur disproportionately where mental health service and other sources of resilience are generally underdeveloped Gelbach, Teaching of EMDR is therefore a valuable support to these countries, but trying to teach it in the immediate wake of disaster is inefficient. Realizing this, HAP has attempted to develop model training projects in a small number of countries where clinicians are motivated and not in crisis Intro (Training Session) - Nino Bless - The Latin Marksman: The Hit Files Vol.

1 (CD), where training includes specialty topics, and where HAP encourages the emergence of local trainers and consultants to sustain capacity once it is attained. At the local level, TRN chapters consist of EMDR clinicians, including a qualified clinical consultant and one or more locally chosen coordinators, who maintain a level of preparation and of liaison with other elements of their local emergency preparedness system, such as the public health department; police, fire, and emergency systems; hospitals; Red Cross chapters; and others.

At the national level, HAP develops liaison with national governmental and nongovernmental agencies that define and support emerging standards of preparedness, response, and recovery. HAP also assists local TRN chapters to meet these standards and connect with local, regional, and national sources of support.

Several Palestinians became consultants and facilitators, and 4 became trainers, eliminating the need for translators thereafter. Many of the new clinicians work in teams to address periodic intensifications of traumatic events. One of the trainers has already conducted EMDR training in Arabic in four other countries and is currently training Arab clinicians in Beirut serving Syrian refugees.

National EMDR associations are in formation in each country. Professional development, comprising advanced clinical training in standard psychological forms of first aid that can precede or combine with EMDR early treatment protocols; mastery of EMDR applications designed for response and recovery phases of emergency care, including group treatment and care of special populations such as children many relevant protocols are found in Luber, 2. Community education before emergencies to inform mental health agencies, community leaders, and the public about the nature of trauma, how it can be treated, and how individuals can promote resilience in themselves and their family 4.

TRN networking to maintain ongoing dialogue among TRN chapters and with the National Trauma Recovery Network to share news, concerns, and lessons learned and to ensure that all chapters embrace a common set of standards and policies 5.

Local emergency response wherein the TRN chapter undertakes the actions it has practiced and prepared, in coordination with other local actors 6.

Nonlocal response wherein a TRN chapter calls on sister chapters for additional volunteers when the scale of a local emergency merits reinforcements Trauma Recovery Network. TRN chapters in three states went into action immediately. Each TRN was composed of clinicians who had prepared for such an eventuality. A few months later, a lone gunman entered Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, and killed 20 children and six educators.

For the surviving children and teachers, the families, and first responders, the traumatic consequences were massive. A TRN chapter developing in the county went immediately to work, providing psychoeducation and brief therapy over the following months.

Across the country, devastating forest fires in California and Arizona had traumatic effects on residents and first responders. Two local TRN groups went into action. A TRN chapter negotiated Intro (Training Session) - Nino Bless - The Latin Marksman: The Hit Files Vol. 1 (CD) model memorandum of understanding with a local Red Cross chapter, and another responded to bombing of the Boston marathon. Twenty established TRN chapters will soon be joined by 20 more in other cities.

The advantages of informed local initiative when disaster strikes are substantial. HAP is increasingly able to concentrate on seeking outside resources to sustain these networks and on enabling the chapters to communicate quickly and learn from each other. Looking Forward. There are now many sister HAPs in other countries. EMDR has been brought to bear in many disaster situations. EMDR training has reached clinicians and agencies serving communities with high levels of need.

The challenges facing HAP today are a to ensure that EMDR clinicians serving the most vulnerable populations are adequately supported to develop mastery and apply it where most needed and b to use the scarce resources available for disaster response in the most efficient and collaborative way, with expanded attention to preparedness as the key to success.

These challenges pertain both in the United States and in developing nations abroad. The common vision is to build and strengthen through collaboration a worldwide TRN.

A Final Note. Inthe board of directors changed the name of their organization to make its focus more immediately apparent to the general pubJournal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 8, Number 4, lic. Unpublished paper. Alter-Reid, K. Ashman, D. Outreach Ethiopia. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing EMDR : Treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder.

Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 3— EMDR: Healing trauma, healing humanity. Three case report illustrating the use of the protocol for recent traumatic events following the World Trade Center terrorist attack. Errebo, N. The EMDR protocol for recent critical incidents: Application in a disaster mental health continuum of care context.

Implementing EMDR early mental health interventions for man-made and natural disasters. Matthess, H. Scientific resistance to research, training and utilization of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing EMDR therapy in treating post-war disorders. Mental health and development: Targeting people with mental health conditions as a vulnerable group. Guidelines for the management of conditions that are specifically related to stress.

Author Note. TRN chapters and their teams continue to increase awareness in local communities of the healing possibilities of acute and longer term trauma symptoms through early intervention with EMDR treatment. EMDR therapy contains elements of many effective psychotherapies in structured protocols that are designed to maximize treatment effects. EMDR psychotherapy is an information processing therapy and uses an eight-phase approach to address the experiential factors that have set the groundwork for pathology; the current situations that trigger dysfunctional emotions, beliefs, and sensations; and the positive experience needed to enhance future adaptive behavior and mental health Shapiro, Since that time, 19 local TRNs are formed nationwide, many recently in response to violence in schools and natural disasters.

To date, chapters work independently, free to develop their own organizational structure. Coordinators of regional chapters informally discuss standards and share their best practices. Other EMDR clinicians provide administrative and logistical support during a disaster. Many TRN chapters focus on first responders and caregivers as the recipients of their services. After a disaster, the first response system of that community is greatly impacted; EMDR treatment for this population can be an optimal means toward restoring the health of the community.

Leadership Coordinators of TRN chapters volunteer to take on the leadership role and devote their skill and time to the development and running of the local chapter.

TRN chapter coordinators need to be wellorganized, think on their feet, get along well with people, be upfront, and like to take charge. Their ability to delegate tasks, ask for help, and be a good communicator will enable the TRN team to be at optimum value and longevity. Coordinators should make their team members aware of the emotional short- and longterm impact of emergency work on the body and soul.

Team members can take on specific roles. Funding All TRN chapters provide their outreach, educational, and treatment services pro bono. Today, the overall operational costs of a TRN are covered through volunteers and fundraising efforts, such as training materials, travel costs for treatment and education, client forms, invited guest speakers and experts for training the team, and website maintenance and development.

TRN Responses to U. Hurricane Sandy hit the U. East Coast on October 29,destroying hundreds of miles of coastline and thousands of homes, leaving hundreds homeless.

On December 14,20 first grade schoolchildren and 6 adults were killed at the Sandy Hook Elementary School by a year-old lone gunman. This shooting took place in a bucolic Connecticut neighborhood and was the largest mass murder school shooting in the United States. Following descriptions of elements of our team responses, we share lessons learned from the inside out from the viewpoints of two TRN coordinators. Initial Responses to a Disaster Invitations.

Optimally, TRNs are invited by official or civilian contacts in the disaster-impacted community to provide EMDR training and treatment. Each employee participated in a psycho-educational group on trauma and was offered treatment. Other TRN responses evolved in different ways. The initial response in the Rockaways by hurricane Sandy was initiated by local EMDR clinicians who had contacts in the community.

On Staten Island, a borough of NYC that had 26 miles of coastline affected by the storm, a long-term response to provide direct treatment was set up at a local parish church staffed by TRN team members.

At the outset, there were no formalized connections in place to a larger disaster organization. More than children, law enforcement, clinicians, teachers and parents were treated within a year, and 20 new local EMDR clinicians were trained in basic EMDR. At present, there are no official guidelines or standards set for how TRN teams respond to community disasters. In the past year, some headway has been made by several individual TRN chapters with larger disaster response organizations.

Department of Health and Human Services response team and continues to affiliate with other emergency response teams as we widen our scope of trauma trainings at the local and state levels. Clinician availability is monitored by a designated representative. Regular TRN team meetings are held to provide ongoing support, training, and updates.

There are two different response teams in a disaster. One team is trained to go on-site and provide services, and another team provides services at their offices or at designated counseling space within the disaster community. When a team is activated to respond on-site, travel arrangements and accommodations must be made in advance. This occurred when hurricanes Katrina and Rita in New Orleans, Louisiana, required bringing in teams of clinicians from around the United States.

Physical Safety Considerations. These areas provided food, shelter, counseling, massage, chiropractic, and general support. The NYC TRN coordinator was concerned about air quality and made the decision not to send a team to the area to provide treatment but rather provide treatment through therapist offices.

Fortunately, the right decision was made because many responders at Ground Zero contracted numerous medical conditions including respiratory illnesses and cancer.

During hurricane Sandy, the challenges and conditions were different. However, there were no electricity, heat, or land lines, and public transportation and businesses were unable to open. The focus was on putting a team together that could work under limited conditions. In contrast, in the borough of Staten Island, a grant secured by two area clinicians to provide services to residents allowed for EMDR treatment in a parish church and art gallery where it was warm and dry. Emotional Safety Considerations.

Although not part of the primary grieving community, TRN therapists responded to their own shock and horror at the news of the tragic shootings. Many were triggered by issues concerning the safety and vulnerability of their own children. Areas of heightened vulnerability unique to a disaster require extra support and attention to specific emotional safety concerns of team members.

Being witness to horror and to the best and worst of people in the aftermath of disaster is a running thread throughout TRN work. Most mental health professionals are confronted with a wide range of human responses in the course of their careers. Space needs to be made for intrapersonal and interpersonal reflection to do maximally effective work.

Therapist Experiences The following recollections from team members relate to emotional and physical safety and well-being concerns in the initial stages of disaster response: When asked to describe my emotions during the year I treated survivors of the Sandy Hook massacre, I hardly knew where to begin. Initially, there was the terror. Then there was all the translation of this toxic matter into the body, mostly in the form of intense abdominal discomfort, which was then thankfully reprocessed by a dear and trusted colleague.

When the tragedy Intro (Training Session) - Nino Bless - The Latin Marksman: The Hit Files Vol. 1 (CD) Sandy Hook happened, the question of what the emotional toll might be on me was not on my radar; fortunately, there were members of the team who brought this to the forefront and reminded me that I did not have to muscle through alone. After being in New Orleans for a few weeks in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, a probation Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 8, Number 4, and parole officer took me to the Ninth Ward to see the destruction, I had already spent all my time in a city without potable water, eating military rations, and sleeping in a shelter.

But when I stood in the midst of the devastation, what struck me as the most upsetting was the lack of sound. It was surreal to see houses pushed up against each other like doll houses and a bus and a boat piled in the mix but the lack of sound was like nothing I had experienced before. There was no life and it was hauntingly real. This clinical matter has far-reaching implications. The NYC TRN used the following recommended guidelines: a Treat people who can be helped in one to five sessions; b treat people who are medication-free without history of psychiatric hospitalizations; and c treat people who do not have dissociative, bipolar, or personality disorders because they may require more treatment than the model allows; and d referrals for those who cannot be treated on the ground are made through the EMDRIA website to find EMDR clinicians in their areas.

Attention needs to be paid to varying guidelines by states for referrals. For example, in New York State, in order for the referral source not to be held responsible for the outcome of treatment, three referrals must be given. Victims were provided with five sessions, and if they required more sessions, the case was discussed with the clinical supervisor to determine the next course of action.

For their Sandy Hook response, they broadened their definition of first responders to include Sandy Hook family members children and adults directly impacted by the shootingteachers, and clergy. The original provision of five pro bono sessions was cut back to three sessions because of time and emotional resources available from the team. A careful list of EMDR clinicians throughout the state of Connecticut was available for those treated after three sessions when thought to benefit from longer Reflection of U.

When working in the immediate aftermath of a disaster, intense bidirectional bonding between therapist and client is natural and expected. Each disaster has unique qualities, but it is important to address the question of when the initial response ends and whether and how long the response plan will be executed. The initial decision regarding how long a team will work in the field and whether it will become long-term is based on the nature of the disaster, the number of people to treat, the space needed for treatment, and the stamina of the team.

For hurricanes Katrina and Rita, the initial response lasted approximately 3 months and ended when all of the employees of the State Department of Probation and Parole were provided with services.

For hurricane Sandy, the initial response in the Rockaways was limited by the space available to provide treatment and the closing of the FEMA and Red Cross tent. The initial response on Staten Island ended when the coordinators could no longer provide the time and turned their efforts to putting together an EMDR training for local clinicians. In Sandy Hook, the initial stage of intervention lasted 6 months.

This stage of intervention ended when a many of the goals set for provision of recent event treatment to the defined population were accomplished, b EMDR training of local clinicians had been completed and capacity had been built within the community to treat their own with EMDR, and c the coordinators sensed that signs of emotional and physical fatigue were beginning to show on team members despite ongoing self-care.

A critical component of ending the Sandy Hook initiative was to invite a HAP volunteer in to do a group protocol with the team to gain closure as a TRN group on this chapter of the work. This allowed for expression of feelings ranging from deep appreciation and love for fellow TRN members to suppressed rage at the shooter, from pride in accomplishment to soul shattering and spiritual uplifting.

This requires time and commitment to do outreach and establish liaisons to community agencies. Each area affected by a disaster needs to be assessed for the number of available EMDR-trained clinicians and their availability to provide pro bono services.

If there are plenty of EMDR therapists in or near the disaster site, TRN chapters can organize an efficient referral system for services. Following hurricanes Katrina and Rita and hurricane Sandy, successful outreach programs locating agencies interested in trauma training resulted in EMDR basic trainings.

In Sandy Hook, the FCTRN established a relationship with the local community mental health agency, which was the hub of mental health referrals for the tragedy.

This enabled EMDR basic training to be set up for agency clinicians and surrounding area therapists within 3 months after the disaster. Newly trained clinicians were then provided ongoing support and consultation in their work. Building capacity happened in other ways as the TRN built on the relationships they formed with other first responder groups.

Hence, TRN work in the immediate aftermath of a disaster has many potential healing ripple effects. This occurred as a result of treating clients for the same trauma symptoms as the therapists had been experiencing. Intensive three times per week sessions were offered to the clinicians with EMDR treatment. Although this treatment was provided 2. The implications of this project included the following suggestions: a Build resilience of clinicians through resourcing and trauma treatment, b identify and educate responders about shared traumatic realities, c bring in clinicians from outside the community to treat the local therapists who may also have been primary trauma sufferers, d provide EMDR treatment to clear out trauma before Part I training so that learning can be optimized rather than compromised by traumatic stress, and e model effective EMDR treatment by seasoned EMDR clinicians to optimize EMDR training and learning.

The implications of this research project were applied in the work at Sandy Hook. There is a tremendous amount of stress in responding to these disasters; emotional and physical impacts can last for months, often unrecognized and untreated. This included encouraging needs assessment on how to keep balance; maintain boundaries, not stretch beyond individual limits; and pay attention to proper sleep, exercise, and nutrition.

During debriefing, if a TRN clinician reported distress from unprocessed images, thoughts, emotions, or sensation from their sessions, EMD or other restricted protocols were used to help them reprocess their memories.

Therapist Experiences The following are recollections of the emotional and spiritual impact of treatment sessions delivered during Sandy Hook TRN work: The most meaningful lessons were taught to me by the adult sister of one of the Sandy Hook victims, and I will be forever grateful to her.

We did some recent event EMDR treatment, and then we stopped, as there seemed to be no further place for it. I could only bear witness to her grief and pain as she explored her own religious faith and spirituality.

She continued to share other spiritually oriented meditations and writings, succeeding in opening my heart to ongoing struggle with my faith and spirituality. As we continued this work together, we mutually came to a place of peace and relative rest, freeing me from my sense of helplessness and futile need to rescue her. I will never forget her or the gift she gave me.

Telling the stories in the TRN groups became more difficult. I was moved by their compassion and respect for the victims and their families. Letting down their guards to face treatment for their trauma is as foreign to them as running into a fire or facing a shooter is to me.

Engaging them in the possibility and importance of getting help continues to be a very important part of our TRN work. It is very difficult to capture and measure the true impact of working in Sandy Hook. I continually ask myself this question and attempt to analyze the true impact on who I am and how I changed as a result of one of the most horrific events we as a nation have ever faced. To say that I view life and its precious moments in a different light is an understatement.

I find myself loving people more and accepting flaws more easily. In the end, what has stood out is the capacity of the human spirit to reach deep inside and connect to spiritual and other deeply held resources to help them through.


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