In October an anti-capitalism Occupy London encampment was established in front of the cathedral, after failing to gain access to the London Stock Exchange at Paternoster Square nearby. The cathedral's finances were affected by the ensuing closure. In Septembershe had taken photos of the cathedral's interior. While trying to radicalize others using the Telegram messaging softwareshe planned to attack the cathedral and other targets such as a hotel and a train station using explosives.
Shaikh pleaded guility and was sentenced to 14 years in prison. St Paul's Cathedral is a busy church with four or five services every day, including MatinsEucharist and Evening Prayer or Choral Evensong  In addition, the cathedral has many special services associated with the City of London, its corporation, guilds and institutions.
The cathedral, as the largest church in London, also has a role in many state functions such as the service celebrating the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. The cathedral is generally open daily to tourists and has a regular programme of organ recitals and other performances. The cathedral chapter is currently composed of seven individuals: the dean, three residentiary canons one of whom is, exceptionally, layone "additional member of chapter and canon non-residentiary" ordainedand two lay canons.
Each has a different responsibility in the running of the cathedral. The registrar, Emma Davies from Septemberis the cathedral's principal administrator and lay officer, and assists the cathedral chapter in its work, overseeing more than full-time staff, together with volunteers. The Director of Music is Andrew Carwood. An organ was commissioned from Bernard Smith in In the organ from the Panopticon of Science and Art the Panopticon Organ was installed in a gallery over the south transept door.
The Grand Organ is the fifth-largest in Great Britain, [b]  in terms of number of pipes 7, with 5 manuals, ranks of pipes and stopsprincipally enclosed in an impressive case designed in Wren's workshop and decorated by Grinling Gibbons.
Details of the organ can be found online at the National Pipe Organ Register. St Paul's Cathedral has a full professional choir, which sings regularly at services. The earliest records of the choir date from The present choir consist of up to 30 boy choristers, eight probationers and the vicars choral, 12 professional singers. In February the cathedral announced the appointment of the first female vicar choral, Carris Jones a mezzo-sopranoto take up the role in September During school terms the choir sings Evensong six times per week, the service on Mondays being sung by a visiting choir or occasionally said and that on Thursdays being sung by the vicars choral alone.
On Sundays the choir also sings at Mattins and the am Eucharist. If anyone calls, Say I'm designing Saint Paul's. In designing St Paul's, Christopher Wren had to meet many challenges. He had to create a fitting cathedral to replace Old St Paul'sas a place of worship and as a landmark within the City of London. He had to satisfy the requirements of the church and the tastes of a royal patron, as well as respecting the essentially medieval tradition of English church building which developed to accommodate the liturgy.
Wren's design developed through five general stages. The first survives only as a single drawing and part of a model. The scheme usually called the First Model Design appears to have consisted of a circular domed vestibule possibly based on the Pantheon in Rome and a rectangular church of basilica form. The plan may have been influenced by the Temple Church. It was rejected because it was not thought "stately enough". Wren's third design is embodied in the "Great Model" of His critics, members of a committee commissioned to rebuild the church, and clergy decried the design as too dissimilar to other English churches to suggest any continuity within the Church of England.
Another problem was that the entire design would have to be completed all at once because of the eight central piers that supported the dome, instead of being completed in stages and opened for use before construction finished, as was customary.
The Great Model was Wren's favourite design; he thought it a reflection of Renaissance beauty. Wren's fourth design is I Have Surely Built Thee (First Part) - St. Pauls Cathedral Choir - I Have Surely Built Thee (Shellac) as the Warrant design because it received a Royal warrant for the rebuilding. In this design Wren sought to reconcile Gothic, the predominant style of English churches, to a "better manner of architecture".
It has the longitudinal Latin Cross plan of a medieval cathedral. Vaughan Hart has suggested that influence in the design of the spire may have been drawn from the oriental pagoda. This small change in configuration was informed by Wren's knowledge of astronomy. The final design as built differs substantially from the official Warrant design. Many of these changes were made over the course of the thirty years as the church was constructed, and the most significant was to the dome: "He raised another structure over the first cupola, a cone of brick, so as to support a stone lantern of an elegant figure And he covered and hid out of sight the brick cone with another cupola of timber and lead; and between this and the cone are easy stairs that ascend to the lantern" Christopher Wren, son of Sir Christopher Wren.
The final design was strongly rooted in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. The date of the laying of the first stone of the cathedral is disputed. One contemporary account says it was 21 Juneanother 25 June and a third on 28 June. There is, however, general agreement that it was laid in June Edward Strong later claimed it was laid by his elder brother, Thomas Strong, one of the two master stonemasons appointed by Wren at the beginning of the work.
Wren's challenge was to construct a large cathedral on the relatively weak clay soil of London. St Paul's is unusual among cathedrals in that there is a crypt, the largest in Europe, under the entire building rather than I Have Surely Built Thee (First Part) - St.
Pauls Cathedral Choir - I Have Surely Built Thee (Shellac) under the eastern end. Although it is extensive, half the space of the crypt is taken up by massive piers which spread the weight of the much slimmer piers of the church above.
While the towers and domes of most cathedrals are supported on four piers, Wren designed the dome of St Paul's to be supported on eight, achieving a broader distribution of weight at the level of the foundations. One of the design problems that confronted Wren was to create a landmark dome, tall enough to visually replace the lost tower of St Paul's, while at the same time appearing visually satisfying when viewed from inside the building.
Wren planned a double-shelled dome, as at St Peter's Basilica. Between the inner and outer domes, Wren inserted a brick cone which supports both the timbers of the outer, lead-covered dome and the weight of the ornate stone lantern that rises above it. Both the cone and the inner dome are 18 inches thick and are supported by wrought iron chains at intervals in the brick cone and around the cornice of the peristyle of the inner dome to prevent spreading and cracking.
The Warrant Design showed external buttresses on the ground floor level. These were not a classical feature and were one of the first elements Wren changed. Instead he made the walls of the cathedral particularly thick to avoid the need for external buttresses altogether. The clerestory and vault are reinforced with flying buttresses, which were added at a relatively late stage in the design to give extra strength.
During the extensive period of design and rationalisation Wren employed from Nicholas Hawksmoor as his principal assistant. John Langland was the master carpenter for over thirty years. St Paul's Cathedral is built in a restrained Baroque style which represents Wren's rationalisation of the traditions of English medieval cathedrals with the inspiration of Palladiothe classical style of Inigo Jones, the baroque style of 17th century Rome, and the buildings by Mansart and others that he had seen in France.
It has much emphasis on its facade, which has been designed to define rather than conceal the form of the building behind it. In plan, the towers jut beyond the width of the aisles as they do at Wells Cathedral. Wren's uncle Matthew Wren was the Bishop of Elyand, having worked for his uncle, Wren was familiar with the unique octagonal lantern tower over the crossing of Ely Cathedralwhich spans the aisles as well as the central nave, unlike the central towers and domes of most churches.
Wren adapted this characteristic in designing the dome of St Paul's. The height of feet is explained by Wren's interest in astronomy. Until the late 20th century St Paul's was the tallest building on the City skyline, designed to be seen surrounded by the delicate spires of Wren's other city churches. The dome is described by Sir Banister Fletcher as "probably the finest in Europe", by Helen Gardner as "majestic", and by Sir Nikolaus Pevsner as "one of the most perfect in the world".
Sir John Summerson said that Englishmen and "even some foreigners" consider it to be without equal. From the time of the Greek Cross Design it is clear that Wren favoured a continuous colonnade peristyle around the drum of the dome, rather than the arrangement of alternating windows and projecting columns that Michelangelo had used and which had also been employed by Mansart. Above the peristyle rises the second stage surrounded by a balustraded balcony called the "Stone Gallery", I Have Surely Built Thee (First Part) - St.
Pauls Cathedral Choir - I Have Surely Built Thee (Shellac). This attic stage is ornamented with alternating pilasters and rectangular windows which are set just below the cornice, creating a sense of lightness. Above this attic rises the dome, covered with lead, and ribbed in accordance with the spacing of the pilasters. It is pierced by eight light wells just below the lantern, but these are barely visible.
They allow light to penetrate through openings in the brick cone, which illuminates the interior apex of this shell, partly visible from within the cathedral through the ocular opening of the lower dome. The lantern, like the visible masonry of the dome, rises in stages.
The most unusual characteristic of this structure is that it is of square plan, rather than circular or octagonal. The tallest stage takes the form of a tempietto with four columned porticos facing the cardinal points. Its lowest level is surrounded by the "Golden Gallery" and its upper level supports a small dome from which rises a cross on a golden ball. The total weight of the lantern is about tons.
For the Renaissance architect designing the west front of a large church or cathedral, the universal problem was how to use a facade to unite the high central nave with the lower aisles in a visually harmonious whole. Since Alberti 's additions to Santa Maria Novella in Florence, this was usually achieved by the simple expedient of linking the sides to the centre with large brackets. Another feature employed by Mansart was a boldly projecting Classical portico with paired columns.
Wren faced the additional challenge of incorporating I Have Surely Built Thee (First Part) - St. Pauls Cathedral Choir - I Have Surely Built Thee (Shellac) into the design, as had been planned at St Peter's Basilica. At St Peter's, Carlo Maderno had solved this problem by constructing a narthex and stretching a huge screen facade across it, differentiated at the centre by a pediment. The towers at St Peter's were not built above the parapet. The remarkable feature here is that the lower story of this portico extends to the full width of the aisles, while the upper section defines the nave that lies behind it.
The gaps between the upper stage of the portico and the towers on either side are bridged by a narrow section of wall with an arch-topped window. The towers stand outside the width of the aisles, but screen two chapels located immediately behind them. The lower parts of the towers continue the theme of the outer walls, but are differentiated from them in order to create an appearance of strength. The windows of the lower story are smaller than those of the side walls and are deeply recessed, a visual indication of the thickness of the wall.
The paired pilasters at each corner project boldly. Above the main cornicewhich unites the towers with the portico and the outer walls, the details are boldly scaled, in order to read well from the street below and from a distance.
The towers rise above the cornice from a square block plinth which is plain apart from large oculi, that on the south being filled by the clock, while that on the north is void. The towers are composed of two complementary elements, a central cylinder rising through the tiers in a series of stacked drums, and paired Corinthian columns at the corners, with buttresses above them, which serve to unify the drum shape with the square plinth on which it stands.
The entablature above the columns breaks forward over them to express both elements, tying them together in a single horizontal band. The cap, an ogee-shaped dome, supports a gilded pineapple-shaped finial. The transepts each have a semi-circular entrance portico. The building is of two storeys of ashlar masonry, above a basement, and surrounded by a balustrade above the upper cornice.
The balustrade was added, against Wren's wishes, in Where the building behind is of only one story at the aisles of both nave and choir the upper story of the exterior wall is sham. This appearance may still be seen from across the River Thames. Between the pilasters on both levels are windows. Those of the lower storey have semi-circular heads and are surrounded by continuous mouldings of a Roman style, rising to decorative keystones. Beneath each window is a floral swag by Grinling Gibbons, constituting the finest stone carving on the building and some of the greatest architectural sculpture in England.
A frieze with similar swags runs in a band below the cornice, tying the arches of the windows and the capitals. The upper windows are of a restrained Classical form, with pediments set on columns, but are blind and contain niches.
Beneath these niches, and in the basement level, are small windows with segmental tops, the glazing of which catches the light and visually links them to the large windows of the aisles. The height from ground level to the top of the parapet is approximately feet. The original fencing, designed by Wren, was dismantled in the s. The surveyor for the government of Toronto had it shipped to Toronto, where it has since adorned High Park. Internally, St Paul's has a nave and choir in each of its three bays.
The entrance from the west portico is through a square domed narthex, flanked by chapels: the Chapel of St Dunstan to the north and the Chapel of the Order of St Michael and St George to the south. The bays, and therefore the vault compartments, are rectangular, but Wren roofed these spaces with saucer-shaped domes and surrounded the clerestory windows with lunettes.
The transepts extend to the north and south of the dome and are called in this instance the North Choir and the South Choir. The choir holds the stalls for the clergy, cathedral officers and the choir, and the organ. These wooden fittings, including the pulpit and Bishop's throne, were designed in Wren's office and built by joiners.
The carvings are the work of Grinling Gibbons whom Summerson describes as having "astonishing facility", suggesting that Gibbons aim was to reproduce popular Dutch flower painting in wood. The main internal space of the cathedral is that under the central dome which extends the full width of the nave and aisles.
The dome is supported on pendentives rising between eight arches spanning the nave, choir, transepts, and aisles. The eight piers that carry them are not evenly spaced. Wren has maintained an appearance of eight equal spans by inserting segmental arches to carry galleries across the ends of the aisles, and has extended the mouldings of the upper arch to appear equal to the wider arches.
It is reached by steps from ground level. The dome is raised on a tall drum surrounded by pilasters and pierced with windows in groups of three, separated by eight gilded niches containing statues, and repeating the pattern of the peristyle on the exterior. Its painted decoration by Sir James Thornhill shows eight scenes from the life of St Paul set in illusionistic architecture which continues the forms of the eight niches of the drum.
Through this hole can be seen the decorated inner surface of the cone which supports the lantern. This upper space is lit by the light wells in the outer dome and openings in the brick cone. Engravings of Thornhill's paintings were published in The eastern I Have Surely Built Thee (First Part) - St.
Pauls Cathedral Choir - I Have Surely Built Thee (Shellac) extends the width of the choir and is the full height of the main arches across choir and nave. It is decorated with mosaics, in keeping with the choir vaults. The original reredos and high altar were destroyed by bombing in The present high altar and baldacchino are the work of W.
Godfrey Allen and Stephen Dykes Bower. The three windows of the apse date from and depict themes of service and sacrifice, while the insignia around the edges represent the American states and the US armed forces. The limewood panelling incorporates a rocket—a tribute to America's achievements in space. St Paul's at the time of its completion, was adorned by sculpture in stone and wood, most notably that of Grinling Gibbons, by the paintings in the dome by Thornhill, and by Jean Tijou's elaborate metalwork.
The St. Paul's version was completed with a significant input from Edward Robert Hughes as Hunt was now suffering from glaucoma. In the north choir aisle is a limestone sculpture of the Madonna and Child by Henry Moorecarved in Christopher Wren was the first person to be interred, in On the wall above his tomb in the crypt is written in Latin: Lector, si monumentum requiris, circumspice "Reader, if you seek his monument, look around you".
The largest monument in the cathedral is that to the Duke of Wellington by Alfred Stevens. It stands on the north side of the nave and has on top a statue of Wellington astride his horse "Copenhagen". Although the equestrian figure was planned at the outset, objections to the notion of having a horse in the church prevented its installation until The horse and rider are by John Tweed.
The Duke is buried in the crypt. The tomb of Horatio, Lord Nelson is located in the crypt, next to that of Wellington. Also remembered are Florence NightingaleJ. There are lists of the Bishops and cathedral Deans for the last thousand years. One of the most remarkable sculptures is that of the Dean and poet, John Donne. Before his death, Donne posed for his own memorial statue and was depicted by Nicholas Stone as wrapped in a burial shroud, and standing on a funeral urn.
The sculpture, carved aroundis the only one to have survived the conflagration of intact. A clock was installed in the south-west tower by Langley Bradley in but was worn out by the end of the 19th century. The clock mechanism is 19 feet 5.
Since the clock has been electrically wound with equipment designed and installed by Smith of Derby, relieving the clock custodian from the work of cranking up the heavy drive weights. It chimes the hour and is traditionally tolled on occasions of a death in the royal family, the Bishop of London, or the Lord Mayor of Londonalthough an exception was made at the death of the US president James Garfield. In January the bells were removed for refurbishment and were rehung in September that year, being rung again for the first time on All Saints' Day.
The Interpretation Project is a long-term project concerned with bringing St Paul's to life for all its visitors. Innew touchscreen multimedia guides were also launched. These guides are included in the price of admission. The guides have fly-through videos of the dome galleries and zoomable close-ups of the ceiling mosaics, painting and photography. Archive film footage includes major services and events from the cathedral's history. On Sundays people are admitted only for services and concerts and there is no sightseeing.
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